Towards global elimination of Leprosy

Hossein Hatami

Journal of Health in the Field, , 18 October 2017,

Leprosy is a bacterial infection that has caused the horror of humans more than any other disease over the course of history. The disease has provided the basis for social isolation of people involved. This long-term infection, is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by mycobacterium lepra with a wide clinical spectrum.
So far, development of a vaccine to protect against leprosy has not been successful; however, the impact of early diagnosis and treatment in its prognosis, even in the era before the discovery of antibiotics, has also been of scholars’ interest, as Avicenna writes: "A person who has recently been infected with leprosy and the beginning of the illness is more than hope! but when you get sick, you get rooted and have a steady state if it is treated, it is very difficult". Today, improving lifestyle, promoting health awareness, and improving people’s knowledge about signs and symptoms of illness, as well as regular examination of people in endemic areas in order to early diagnosis and treatment are the keys to success control measures.
Patients who do not derive the benefits from the primary and secondary prevention and have lesions resulting from the anesthetics of the organs, if do not respond to therapeutic measures, will undergo organs alteration as well as osteomyelitis; in which amputation would be sometimes necessary. Furthermore, ophthalmologic complications may also reduce vision or even resulted in blindness. Ultimately, the many
and various complications of the disease on the face of the patient can lead to intolerable defects and social isolation.
Iran has always been one of the hyper endemic areas for lepra throughout history. Suitable sites named "Beh-khadeh" have been established in the northeastern, north, northwestern, and western parts of the country to locate and treat the patients with lepra. During the past years, thousands of these patients have provided with treatment, social and economic support. The incidence and prevalence of the disease have
been declined year by year as a result of health care, diagnosis, timely treatment and administration of the disease; so that the process of the disease has been steadily declining since about two decades ago, based on World Health Organization (WHO). According to the latest report of WHO (August of 2017), the incidence and prevalence of leprosy have reached zero in the country in 2016, and even a new case has not been found anywhere in the country for the first time in history. Thanks to this amazing success, resulted from the precise control and care efforts of the country's health authorities, the editorial of the present issue
of Journal of health in the field has therefore been designated to the issue of leprosy elimination.

Original/Research Article

Background and Aims: Periodontal diseases encompass a wide range of oral diseases in which world health organization concerns about them. The literature already includes several reports of genetics leading role in the development and intensity of periodontal diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between IL-17A,F gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in an Iranian population.
Material and Methods: Totally 99 patients with chronic periodontal disease and 75 healthy periodontal cases or those with gingivitis were selected through clinical factors (GI, PD, BOP, CAL), as the studypopulation. They were then divided into four groups and 3mL peripheral blood sample were collected.
Total DNA was extracted from samples and extracted DNA was stored at -80°C until genotyping and polymorphisms detection using restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Ethical issues were all considered. Informed consent was obtained from all volunteers before the study began.
Results: Our data of IL-17 polymorphisms did not show a significant difference amongst study groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: We did not find statistically significant differences between study groups in Iranian population. Stratification analysis based on the severity of the chronic periodontitis indeed declared no significant
difference in relation to genotype distribution and allelic polymorphisms frequencies.

Health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by computers in a government office in Ahvaz city-2016

Behzad Fouladi Dehaghi, Alireza Ghamar, Leila Iibrahimi Ghavamabadi3, Seyed Mahmood Latifi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 18 October 2017,

Background and Aims: Exposure to electromagnetic fields occurs as a result of electronic equipment exploitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to electromagnetic fields and its impact on the public health of computer users.
Materials and methods: The present cross-sectional study involved 73 male employees. A calibrated gauss meter (model HI-3603, USA) was employed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields. A general health questionnaire was also used to assess the health status of the operators. T tests and chisquare test were used for data analysis. Ethical issues were all considered in all stages of the study, and required permission were received.
Results: The electric field intensity range of desktop and laptop displays were measured 0.26 - 1.2 and 0.28 - 0.87 v/m, respectively. The corresponding intensity at a distance of 30 cm from desktop displays was 1.2 v/m; which was more than the standard level. Indeed, general health questionnaire results revealed that 39% of computer users suffer from the lack of public health. The public health status between two groups was significantly different (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Exposure duration factor is not considered in exposure level standards for electromagnetic fields, and a ceiling amount is only reported. According to the results of this study, electromagnetic field intensity values were below standard limits at most of the measured points; however, given the long duration time of equipment usage, the health consequences of this exposure could be accounted as cumulative exposure.

Background and Aims: Microwave oven, a household appliance that works with microwave, is one of the essential supplies in the kitchen because of ease and speed in cooking. Microwave users are required to be aware of its safety tips, and women are in the program's top priority due to more involvement. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior towards using microwave oven among
women working at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and health services in 2016.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, totally, 120 women working at Shahid Beheshti University of medical Sciences and Health Services were selected through clustering procedure. All stages of this research were conducted ethically. The consent forms were indeed completed. A reliable and valid questionnaire prepared by the research team was exploited for data collection. The questionnaire encompassed demographic, knowledge, attitude and behavior of using microwave oven questions. Finally, the obtained data was analyzed using SPSS22 statistical Softwa
Results: The mean age of women was 38.63 ± 9.19 years. About 58.35 percent of participants had associate's, bachelor's level education and 28.35 percent were of Master's degree. Approximately 68.35%
of the total study group were married. Overall the mean score of knowledge was 15.80 out of 28. The mean score of attitude was 36.69 out of 50, and the mean score of behavior was 59.62 out of 75. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, marital status, education and knowledge and atti tude.
Conclusion: The results of the study suggest the need for interventions to promote awareness, attitude and behavior.

Background and Aims: Skin disorders are common in progressing chronic kidney disease. This study aimed to determine the effect of education based on health belief model on promoting skin care behaviors among hemodialysis patients in selected hospitals under the auspices of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 2016.
Materials and Methods: The present experimental intervention was carried out on 70 hemodialysis patients in the two case and control groups through random sampling. Samples were evaluated in three stages with a self-administered questionnaire. Education was presented as counseling method using an educational file. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16.0) through t-test, Fisher and chi-square. All stages of the study was conducted according to moral standards.
Findings: The results showed that the mean scores of perceived sensitivity and severity as well as skin care behaviors were higher in control group as compared to the intervention group. Scores of all variables in intervention group were significantly increased after intervention.
Conclusion: Health education promotes skin care behaviors of hemodialysis patients through health belief model.

Background and Aims: Phytoremediation of heavy metals from polluted sites could be an efficient and cost-effective alternative in removing heavy metals from soil. This study aimed to investigate the sequestration of Cd, Zn, Pb and Mn in the leaves and soil of Eucalyptus Micro theca, Cupressus arizonica Green and Robinia Pseudo Acasia, which have been planted around the Cement factory of Ilam.
Materials and methods: Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the accumulation of metals in leaves and in the soil at a depth of 0-10 and 10-20 cm in three species as well. Furthermore, the amounts of precipitated metals in Electro filter of factory were measured.
Results: The results showed that Cd (0.55 mg/kg), Zn (3.92 mg/kg), Pb (40.25 mg/kg) and Mn (3.74 mg/ kg) sequestration occurred in electro filter; which were totally more than the amounts of them in soils and leaves of tree species. Results of metals sequestration in the soil revealed that increasing soil depth leads to decrease of Pb sequestration rate in all three species. The most sequestration of Cd and Zn both in the soil and leaves were observed in Robinia Pseudo Acasia. Likewise, the most sequestration of Pb and Mn
in the soil at both depth and also in leaves were observed in Eucalyptus microtheca.
Conclusion: Eucalyptus microtheca and Robinia Pseudo Acasia demonstrated the most sequestration of heavy metals, and thus are suitable species for planting and green space development around the factory.

Feasibility of using waste Molecular sieve and Ceramic ball in hot asphalt mixtures

Shadi Karimpour Zahraei, Mahdi Jalili Ghazizadeh, Morteza Jalili Qazizadeh

Journal of Health in the Field, , 18 October 2017,

Background and Aims: Environmental awareness about problems of industrial waste landfills has resulted in industrial waste management to be high on the agenda with an emphasis on the recovery of materials and energy. One of the methods of waste recycling in the oil and gas industry is the use of generated waste in civil activities. The main objective of this research is to assess the feasibility of using gas refineries
industrial waste produced in dehydration unit in hot asphalt mixtures.
Material and Methods: The ICP and XRF analyses were carried out to determine the concentrations of heavy metals and composing elements of waste Molecular Sieve and Ceramic ¬ball. Sieve and and quality analyses were thence done on these wastes and materials. All stages of this research were conducted ethically.
Results: Both types of wastes were classified as non-dangerous waste. Absorption of water in waste Molecular Sieve was at least 10 times the permissible level for aggregates according to the standards of Journal 234. Waste molecular sieve was not therefore replaceable with aggregates in asphalt mixtures since they may cause cracking in the winter season., Moreover, the existence of many pores in Molecular
Sieve significantly increase the use of bitumen.
Conclusion: Waste Molecular Sieve is not recommend to be uses as an alternative to aggregates due to significant absorption of water.Furthermore, the comparison of results obtained from physical tests performed on the waste ceramics ball with standard limit of Journal 234 indicate the potential of this waste
as an alternative to the aggregates in asphalt mixtures.