Original/Research Article

Investigating the safety atmosphere and its associated factors in a construction firm in 2011

Mohammad Javad Jafari, Mehdi Gharari, Mohtasham Ghafari, Leila Omidi, Gholamreza Asadolah Fardi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 27 بهمن 2017,

Background and Aims: Safety performance in construction industries is a major concern. Occupational injuries and fatalities in these industries are so frequent indicating high rate of accidents. Improper comprehension and safety culture of workers may lead to unsafe behaviors which ultimately result in accidents. This work was conducted to investigate the safety climate and its associated factors in a construction firm.
Materials and Methods: A validated questionnaire was used to determine the safety atmosphere and its relevant factors in two sites of a construction firm. According to MORGAN Table, 347 workers of a construction firm were randomly selected. The relations among safety atmosphere factors, as well as demographic characteristics were determined. Spearman’s rho test was used to analysis the data.
Results: A meaningful relationship among the safety atmosphere factors was observed in both building workshops according to the Spearman’s rho test. The results also showed that management commitment factor was most associated with stress factors of production. There were significant relationships between age and some safety atmosphere factors such as safety training, production pressure, encouraging raising safety, and rule breaking (p<0.05). Job category had significant relationships with some factors including production
pressure, encouraging raising safety, and safety committees (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Safety atmosphere and its associated factors are effective tools to determine the safety condition in the studied construction firm.
Key words: Safety climate, Safety climate factors, Accident, Demographical features.

Removal of 1,2-dichloroethane from industrial wastewater with membrane filtration

Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh, N Jaafarzadeh, Sh Hematian, A Sheikhmohammadi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 27 بهمن 2017,

Background and Aims: 1,2-dichloroetane [ethylene dichloride (EDC)] is a chlorinated hydrocarbon which is widely used to produce vinyl chloride. The later is the major precursor to PVC production. Wastewater originating from EDC production is characterized by high turbidity and contains ethylene dichloride and FeCl3 particles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatability of EDC effluent using membrane filtration.
Materials and Methods: Laboratory scale experiments were carried out on Abadan petrochemical complex wastewater (EDC unit) with various membrane filtration processes that combine microfiltration with nanofiltration. Microfiltration membrane was used as a pretreatment to remove turbidity as well as FeCl3 fine particles, which may subsequently damage nanofiltration system. The microfiltration effluent was thereafter fed to a nanofiltration membrane cell. The filtration performance was assessed through turbidity, TDS, COD and 1,2-dichloroetane removals. pH, temperature and system pressure were also controlled during the study.
Results: Successful removal of turbidity (97.5%) and FeCl3 particles (98%) was achieved by microfiltration. EDC concentration in raw effluent was ranged between 2,000 to 3,000 ppm. The nanofiltration membrane cell followed by microfiltration achieved a very high 1,2-dichloroetane removal (96.7) from water. The experimental results indeed showed that the permeate was consisted mainly of water, which asserts that 1,2-dichloroetane was separated in waste phase.
Conclusion: The results obtained provide further support for previous researches into this brain area and support the application of membrane technology to remove and recovery of soluble organic compounds from petrochemical wastewater.
Key words: Petrochemical wastewater, 1,2-dichloroetane, Membrane filtration, Nanofiltration, Microfiltration

Comparison of static and agitated aerated composting efficacies in the stabilization of industrial slaughterhouse solid wastes

Zohreh Ebraheempoor, MSc of Environmental Health Engineering, Taghi Samadi, Reza Shokuhi, Ghorban Asgari

Journal of Health in the Field, , 27 بهمن 2017,

Background and Aims: Slaughterhouse waste contains putrescible intestinal wastes as well as organic solids with high levels of pathogenic microorganisms. The management of these wastes is therefore necessary to succeed in preventing the spread of infectious agents. This study set out with the aim of assessing the static aerated pile and agitated aerated pile in the composting of industrial slaughterhouse wastes.
Materials and Methods: At every stage of this research, basic parameters such as Carbon: Nitrogen ratio (C:N), were measured. The influence of carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Ash content, and temperature in the composting pile was studied.
Results: On the question of studied variables, this study found that static aerated pile achieved a C: N ratio of 15.59, P 3.16%, K 2.16%, pH 7.08, EC 1586 μS/cm, and Ash content of 16.88% by weight. The corresponding values in the case of agitated aerated pile were respectively as 18.68, 3.02%, 2.35%, 7.2, 1423 μS/cm and 20.78%.
Conclusion: In general, it seems that both static aerated pile and agitated aerated pile well performed in composting and stabilization of slaughterhouse solid wastes. Both processes produced suitably qualified
compost as well.
Key words: Composting, Static, Agitated, Slaughterhouse, Hamedan

The relationship between working life quality and turnover intention among hospital staff

Ehsan Zarei, Marziye Najafi, Roya Rajaee

Journal of Health in the Field, , 27 بهمن 2017,

Background and Aims: Staff turnover is one of the key managerial issues in the health sector. Health managers may prevent staff turnover and job displacement using quality of working life. This study was aimed to develop a relationship between the quality of working life and turnover intention among a hospital staff under the auspices of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014. The study population included all staff members in the hospital, and a total of 126 subjects were selected through stratified random sampling. Data were collected using the Walton’s quality of working life questionnaire consisting of 32 questions as well as 3 questions about staff turnover. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics,
correlation coefficients and multiple regressions.
Results: Based on the findings of this study, a significant relationship between quality of working life and staff turnover. Constitutionalism and integrity were significant predictors of staff willing to leave.
Conclusion: Quality of working life can significantly affect employee turnover. Therefore, in order to maintain and retain qualified and skilled workforce, hospital management should prioritize supportive management and supervision, justice and fairness in the organization. Trying to make the fairly payment system, consistency and balance between work and other aspects of life could also improve the quality of working life for hospital staff.
Key words: Turnover intention, Quality of working life, Health workers, Teaching Hospital

Background and Aims: The entrance of heavy metals, such as arsenic, in water resources can adversely affect human health and ecosystem through bioaccumulation, toxicity, and environmental resistance.
Materials and Methods: The concentration of arsenic in 17 wells in the region of Hasht-Bandi Minab (Iran) was measured during 2012-2013. Groundwater arsenic concentration and hazard quotient (HQ), which describes non-carcinogenic risk, were assessed applying spatial distribution map (surface kriging map).

Results: The concentration of arsenic in groundwater ranged from non-detectable (ND) to 23.7 ppb, with a mean value of 7.69±2.56 ppb. Depending on the location and season of year, arsenic in groundwater covered a wide range of concentration. In autumn (north-west region), winter (north-east region), spring (north-east, north-west, and center regions) and summer (center and east regions), arsenic concentrations were considered unsafe. Chronic daily intake (CDI) and HQ of studied population were respectively calculated as 0.00028 mg/ kg-d and 0.92.
Conclusion: The mean concentration of arsenic was in worrying range; however, the population living in Hasht Bandi had a HQ in secure range. The spatial maps prepared by kriging method showed that the highest and lowest concentrations of arsenic and subsequently hazard quotient were observed in the north-east and in the south and south-west regions, respectively. The findings of the present study draw a meaningful conclusion relating to the use of spatial distribution model in the evaluation of environmental pollutants concentration and risk.
Key words: Arsenic, Non-carcinogen, Kriging surface map

Iron removal from aqueous solution by alumina nanoparticles coated with polyaniline

Hossein Hajizadeh, Mansour Taheri Anaraki, Zahra Arab Aboosadi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 27 بهمن 2017,

Background and Aims: In view of water crisis, effective prevention of water resources contamination is increasingly important. The presence of heavy metals in drinking water at concentrations greater than acceptable limits may result in various adverse health effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of alumina nanoparticles coated with polyaniline for iron removal from aqueous solutions.
Materials and Methods: The direct synthesis method was used to cover the polyaniline film on alumina nanoparticles. Batch adsorption studies were performed as a function of contact time, temperature, adsorbent mass and pH. The adsorption isotherms at iron concentrations ranging from 10 to 150 mg/L as well as the reaction kinetics were also investigated.
Results: The maximum efficiency of iron removal was found at pH 3, 24 ºC and 120 min contact time. The maximum sorption capacity of coated nano-alumina for Fe(II) removal was also found to be 45.66 mg g-1 at 0.1g of adsorbent mass.
Conclusion: Results from this study demonstrated the potential utility of alumina nanoparticles coated with polyaniline showing 83% adsorption ability for iron removal from aqueous solutions.
Key words: Alumina nanoparticles, Polyaniline, Adsorption, Iron ion.