Original/Research Article

Mothers’ perceived barriers in the control of sweets consumption in 3-6 years old children; a qualitative study

Parvaneh Sahrai, Nastaran Keshavarz Mohammadi, Hadi Ghasemi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 26 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Consumption of sweets (snack foods) is one of the most important risk factors associated with dental decay. Children have a great interest in using snack foods. Most children, however, are disadvantaged of taking appropriate action by their parents to control their nutritional behaviors, because of various reasons. This study aimed to explore mothers’ perceived barriers in the control of sweets consumption by their children.
Materials and Methods: The present qualitative study consisting of 40 mothers having 3-6 years old children was performed on Kamyaran residents in 2014 to evaluate their attitudes towards barriers in the control of sweets consumption. Participants were selected based on purposeful sampling and semi-structured interviews were exploited in order to data gathering. Transcriptions of all interviews were analyzed employing content analysis technique to extract main themes according to research questions. Before each interview mothers were informed regarding aim of research, interview style, freedom to leave the interview and the way interview content would be kept private.
Results: The data analyzed suggests that it was possible to categorize mothers’ perceived barriers into three main themes including a) mother related barriers (lack of knowledge and inappropriate attitude), b) child related barriers (emotional status and inappropriate behavior) and c) family related barriers (culture and behavior of family members).
Conclusion: It is hoped that the present research will broaden our understanding of perceived barriers of mothers which could be utilized for future quantitative researches and dental health educational programs.
Key words: Perceived Barriers, Sweets Consumption, Dental Caries

Investigation into catalytic potential of marble powder in catalytic ozonation of Reactive Black 5

Somaye Akbari, Farshid Ghanbari, Halime Almasi, Ghorban Asgari

Journal of Health in the Field, , 26 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Synthetic dyes especially azo dyes are, nowadays, used by the majority of industries for dyeing various materials. In addition to producing color in receiving streams, these dyes may have adverse health effects on human. This study was carried out to investigate the catalytic ozonation with marble powder in the removal of reactive black 5.
Materials and Methods: Marble powder was supplied from Hamadan workshops stonemason. The powder was grinded and sieved to the desired particle size using standard mesh 40. Batch degradation and mineralization studies were performed as a function of pH, adsorbent dose and the influence of catalytic potential of marble powder. Residual dye concentrations were spectrophotometrically measured at 597 nm. In order to comply with ethical principles, in this study, all entries with the references noted.
Results: Reduction of 98% of reactive black 5 was observed when 0.3g catalyst was employed per liter of solution during 20 minutes at pH 10 and in the presence of 50 mg dye. The catalytic potential of marble was
Conclusion: Results from this study demonstrated the potential utility of marble powder as an effective catalyst in catalytic ozonation process.
Key words: Catalytic Potential, Marble Powder, Reactive Dye, Catalytic Ozonation

Background and Aims: Fish consumption is an important route of human exposure to heavy metals. In  order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption,  fish samples of Cyprinus carpio were collected from Zarivar wetland.
Materials and Methods: Atomic absorption spectroscopy was performed to determine the presence of metals. Cd and Pb were identified by graphite furnace technique, and flame technique was employed as a means of Zn identification. In this research, daily intake and hazard indices of heavy metals in fish muscle tissue samples were performed based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fish consumption. Also ethical issues were considered during data collection and throughout the study.
Results: The concentrations of heavy metals in muscle tissues were lower than allowable mean concentrations
of international standards (WHO, FAO, MAFF and FDA). The Non-carcinogenic Hazard Quotient (NHQ) of all studied metals was less than 1.0. Non-carcinogenic hazard quotients (NHQ) for Cd, Pb, Zn in common carp were 0.036, 0.008, 0.039, also HI were 0.084.
Conclusion: In conclusion, metal contents in this species are acceptable for human consumption from a toxicity point of view. HI in common carp was less than unity, suggesting that the consumption of the common carp is unlikely to cause any adverse health effects to consumers.
Key words: Heavy Metals, World Standards, Daily Intake, Hazard Quotient, Common Carp

Social factors influencing treatment interruption in Tuberculosis Patients: A qualitative stud

Mustafa Jiba, Fereshteh Zamani-Alavije, Marzieh Araban, Arash Salahshoori, Mobarak Jiba, Javad Haroni

Journal of Health in the Field, , 26 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Positive smear pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) patients sometimes interrupt their treatment. They may consequently result in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains (MDR-TB) in the community. This study was aimed to explore social factors influencing the treatment interruption in these
Materials and Methods: Purposeful sampling method with maximum variance was employed in this qualitative research. Data gathering process were included unstructured in-depth interviews with totally 37 persons (26 patients, 5 their family members and 6 concerning therapy supervisors), patients’ medical records, as well as recorded information in both Tuberculosis register program and Tuberculosis registration office kept in health care centers. Concurrently with data gathering, they were analyzed through ongoing comparisons. Also the participants in the study informed consent was obtained.
Results: Based on the findings of this study, social factors influencing treatment interruption in Tuberculosis patients were included six sub-categories: lack of social support, TB-related stigma, work issues, poverty, as well as imprisonment and drug abuse during the course of treatment.
Conclusion: Results from this study demonstrated that family members and therapy supervisors need appropriate interventions in order to decrease social factors influencing treatment interruption in Tuberculosis
Key words: Social Factors, Tuberculosis Treatment Interruption, Qualitative Study

Microbiological quality of traditional ice cream and homemade juices in Gorgan and its relationship with health conditions of workers and environment

Mahdi Sadeghi, Abolfazl Amini, Abdolvahab Arefian, Naser Behnampou, Soltan Mohammad Ghasemi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 26 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of food poisoning. Owing to the high consumption of fruit and ice cream, this study was carried out to examine the contamination of traditional ice cream and homemade juices to gram positive bacteria.  
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Gorgan during the summer months. Totally, 25 distinct sites producing handmade traditional juice and ice cream were included in this study.  Ice cream (100 g) as well as carrot and cantaloupe juices (100 cc) were sampled in sterile containers. Collected
samples were then transported to the relevant laboratory in due time, where they were analyzed using methods specified for different types of microbes and bacteria. All the Operators participated in the study were completed informed consent form.
Results: Results showed that traditional ice cream samples were contaminated to S. aureus (56%), yeast (44%), B. cereus (28%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (16%), Listeria (12%), Bacillus subtilis (8%), Bacillus licheniformis (4%) and actinomycetes (4%). Furthermore, respectively 14.8, 33.3, 28.57, 4.76, 14.28, 4.28 and 0 percent infection was traced to contaminated homemade juices (carrot juice and cantaloupe).
Conclusion: The  findings of this study revealed the contamination of traditional ice cream and juice to Staphylococcus aureus and various other microorganisms. Therefore, the more surveillance of health care centers, promoting personal hygiene through health education, and enhancing sanitary conditions is required. The continuous sampling from corporate units should be noticed as well.   
Key words: Traditional Ice Cream, Juice, Staphylococcus Aureus

Contamination of chicken eggs supplied in Tehran by heavy metals and calculation of their daily intake

Somayeh Abbasi Ki, Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki, Nabi Shariatifar, Shahrokh Nazmara, Arash Akbarzadeh

Journal of Health in the Field, , 26 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Chicken eggs, owing to richness in protein and essential minerals, are used in many communities and for all age groups. Metals are considered as one of the most important environmental pollutants which may lead to egg contamination. The consumption of contaminated eggs can harm human
health. The aim of this study was to evaluate heavy metal (arsenic, cadmium, lead, nickel, copper, zinc and iron) contents in chicken eggs supplied in Tehran. Daily intake rates of heavy metals were also calculated.
Materials and Methods: A total of 29 chicken eggs were sampled from various food stores in Tehran. Sample preparation was performed using wet acid digestion. Heavy metals concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. Data analysis was carried out by means of the statistical software SPSS as well as Excel (V.2.26). Kruskal Wallis and ANOVA tests were executed to compare heavy metal concentrations between different brands.
Results: Mean concentrations of cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, copper, iron and zinc in collected chicken eggs were 0.01, 0.074, 0.03, 0.014, 1.46, 34.37 and 12.55 mg/kg, respectively. Iron and cadmium respectively showed the highest and lowest daily intake through chicken egg consumption.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the levels of heavy metals in sampled chicken eggs were less than permissible limits and thus are considered safe. However, due to the importance of food contamination in public health, the continuous monitoring of these contaminants in food is recommended.
Key words: Chicken Eggs, Heavy Metals, Food Safety, Tehran