Original/Research Article

Frequency of beta-globin gene mutations in Thalassemia carriers referred to Varamin and Pakdasht healthcare networks

Hossein Hatami, Sedigheh Rastgar, Soheila Khodakarim, Fereydoon Faghani, Akram Nejatbakhsh, Ebrahim Babaii

Journal of Health in the Field, , 16 January 2017,

Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disorder of autosomal recessive and has high prevalence in Iran. This studywas therefore designed to identify the types of mutations in Beta-Thalassemia.
Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was aimed to investigate the frequency of mutations in beta-globin gene in carriers referred to a health care network. The study was carried out in Pakdasht and Varamin from 1997 to 2013. Ethical issues such as confidentiality of studied community were all considered.
Results: The current study found that from a total of 26 mutations, IVSII-1 was the most frequent mutation (24.5%) followed by IVSI-5 mutation with a frequency of 14.4 percent. Furthermore, there was only limited evidence for an increased frequency of IVSI-25bpdel/N, c22/n, IVSII-848, and fr-36-37/N mutations and each with a frequency of 0.6 percent revealed the lowest frequency.
Conclusion: In accordance with the results of recent studies in the Iranian population, IVSII-1assigned the most common mutation in our study. This combination of findings has important implications for developing a guide for faster access to the type of mutation in patients suffering from Thalassemia.
Keywords: Beta-Thalassemia, beta globin gene, blood factors, mutations, Iran

Background and Aims: Heavy metals are elements with high atomic weight and could be harmful for living organisms at higher concentrations. Cadmium is among these metals and may result in various health problems for
human. The ability of Acer Velutinum in bioremediation of cadmium was considered in the present study.
Materials and Methods: One-year old seedlings of Acer Velutinum were provided from Department of Natural Resources making arrangements well in advance. Cadmium chloride solutions were prepared with different concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L and consequently were added into the soil. The seedlings were planted in
pots and their aerial organs (stems and leaves) as well as their roots were separated three month after. The results were then analyzed using Danken and ANOVA tests.
Results: The maximum amount of cadmium accumulation in aerial organs, root and soil was 9.67, 60.61 and 12.44 mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, the respective lowest level of cadmium accumulation in aerial organs, root and soil was 6.05, 2.3 and 0.1mg/kg. The least amount of aerial organs (4.45 g) and root (1.25 g) dry weights were
occurred at 40 mg Ca/L, and the most values of respectively 9.02 and 3.95 g was observed at pristine control pot.
Conclusion: Acer Velutinum species is considered as appropriate for bioremediation of soils contaminated by cadmium.
Keywords: Cadmium, Adsorption, Heavy metals, Phytoremediation, Acer Velutinum

Disasters preparedness of health workers in Dehloran, Iran

Reza Jourvand, Kazemieh Sadeghirad, Omid Ali Golami, Marjan Vejdani, Rahman Panahi, Akbar Babaei Heydarabadi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 16 January 2017,

Background: Iran is one of the most vulnerable communities for the expected disasters and accidents. Each year these disasters result in the deaths and injuries to people. The demand for health care requires permanent preparedness of medical centers and their personnel. The current study set out with the aim of assessing the preparedness of personnel working in the medical centers of Dehloran city towards disasters in 2013.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- sectional research, the preparedness of 66 medical personnel working in the health care centers were assessed using questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS15 software. Written consents were obtained from participants in the study.
Results: The average score of the participant`s knowledge about disasters and disaster-related health preparedness was 3.95±1.22. The mean scores of the respondent`s attitudes and performances were 23.27±2.3 and 1.35±1.5 respectively, demonstrating a poor knowledge and performance and a positive attitude towards the need for preparedness against disasters.
Conclusions: Despite the positive attitude about the importance of preparedness to deal with disasters, awareness and performance of employees were poor. Educational intervention with an emphasis on its repetition and designed maneuvers for various disasters is recommended to improve the staff preparedness.
Keywords: Preparedness, Disaster, Health workers

Quality assessment of Tehran’s Firoozabad Channel surface runoff for irrigation uses

Ahmadreza Yazdanbakhash, Akbar Eslami, Somayeh Rezaei

Journal of Health in the Field, , 16 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Concerning the importance and limitations of water resources in particularly arid and semi-arid areas such as Iran, it seems that the use of surface runoff may be considered as a fundamental step to compensate a part of water scarcity. This study was aimed to assess the quality of surface runoff in Tehran’s Firoozabad Channel for irrigation uses.
Materials and Methods: Throughout this experimental-laboratory study, sampling was done from the channel’s downstream in the south of Tehran during the spring and summer seasons in 2015. Arrangements were made well in advance with related organizations in order to sampling as well as to make use of required data. Water samples were analyzed for physic-chemical and biological parameters such as BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, SAR, Na%, TP, TKN, calcium, magnesium, sodium, electrical conductivity, boron, chloride, heavy metals, as well as intestinal nematodes, Total coliforms and Fecal coliforms.
Results: The mean concentrations of BOD5, COD and heavy metals except for nickel as well as pH were in compliance with the standards set by Iranian Environmental Protection Agency for irrigation uses of effluents. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, SAR, chloride, and boron were in the range of low to moderate. Furthermore, Na% was considered as permissible for irrigation uses. The average of turbidity, TSS and numbers of Coliforms and Thermotoerant Coliforms exceeded the desirable limits recommended for agricultural irrigation.
Conclusion: The significance of results obtained simply emphasizes that although some measured parameters was found within national and international standards, there is a need for runoff treatment and notably disinfection for particular studied parameters. Additionally, continuous monitoring of such a surface runoff to determine its compliance with promulgated standards is recommended.
Keyword: Irrigation, Surface Runoff Quality, Agriculture, Firoozabad Channel, Tehran

The survey of Zarin-Gol River water quality in Golestan Province using NSF-WQI and IRWQISC

Mahdi Sadeghi, Abotaleb Bay, Nasser Bay, Nafiseh Soflaie, Mohammad Hadi Mehdinejad, Morteza Mallah

Journal of Health in the Field, , 16 January 2017,

Background and Aims: With regard to the presence of agricultural and recreational activities as well as Aqua culture (fish farming) industries around the Zarin-Gol River, the current study aimed to evaluate water quality of this river in terms of water quality indices.
Materials and Methods: Regarding to the agricultural and livestock activities around the river, seasonal patterns of water quality indices (NSF-WQI and IRWQISC) were estimated using physic-chemical and biological parameters from 9 water quality monitoring stations. Sampling was done biweekly throughout summer and autumn. Measured parameters included fecal coliforms, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, phosphorus, turbidity, total hardness, pH and total solids. Because of the nature of the project, there were not ethical issues in this study.
Results: The results of this study show that the WQI values in the samples from all stations were 54 to 61, based on both indices. NSF WQI index was moderate (70-50) and IRWQISC was also considered as moderate (55-45) and relatively good (55.1-70).
Conclusions: Total solids, turbidity, nitrate, temperature, and fecal coliforms were the most affecting parameters. Furthermore, although the quality of river water was suitable for agriculture, it should be treated for drinking, based on the water quality index value.

Keywords: water quality index, Zarin-Gol River, Golestan province, pollutant

Evaluation of minimum cost and greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste processing and disposal centers using NSGA II algorithm

Sajad Nasrollahi-Sarvaghaji, Reza Alimardani, Mohammad Sharifi, Mohammad Reza Taghizadeh Yazdi

Journal of Health in the Field, , 16 January 2017,

Background and Aims: Assessment of the stability of an integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS)necessitates analysis of effective criteria. The present study was therefore designed to provide a simple mathematical model to optimize ISWMS aiming at minimizing the cost and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG).
Materials and Methods: In order to make use of data recorded during September to October (2014- 2015), it was necessary to make arrangements well in advance with the directors of Waste Management in Tehran. The proposed model was applied and consequently analyzed for allocation of eleven MSW components (including: paper, cardboard, plastic, nylon, metal, glass, PET, wet waste, bread, mixed recyclables and other wastes) into three sub-systems of MSW management (i.e., processing and separation, anaerobic digestion and land filling) at Abali processing and disposal center using NSGA II algorithm.
Results: The results of this study indicate that the costs and emissions of GHG would be significantly reduced by increased separation rate in a municipal ISWMS. Furthermore, the identified optimum condition was 100 percent separation and processing with 486 USD (revenue) and 2438 Kg reduced CO2 (avoided emissions) representing a substantial improvement in the ascending trend rate of disposal separation.
Conclusion: It seems necessary to increase daily waste entrance into Abali complex and complement the proposed system with other sub-systems concerning economic and environmental issues in order to enhance the technical feasibility of establishing such a system. On the other hand, given that transport and landfill sub-systems don’t have any positive economic and environmental issues, the flow and rate of waste allocation to these sub-systems should be followed in a carefully planned and exact way.
Keywords: NSGA II algorithm, Municipal Solid Waste, Greenhouse Gases, Mathematical model