The Potential Role of Super Spread Events in SARS-COV-2 Pandemic; a Narrative Review
Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine,
Vol. 8 No. 1 (2020),
7 January 2020
Coronaviruses, members of Coronaviridae family, cause extensive epidemics of vast diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) in animals and humans. Super spread events (SSEs) potentiate early outbreak of the disease and its constant spread in later stages. Viral recombination events within species and across hosts lead to natural selection based on advanced infectivity and resistance. In this review, the importance of containment of SSEs was investigated with emphasis on stopping COVID-19 spread and its socio-economic consequences. A comprehensive search was conducted among literature available in multiple electronic sources to find articles that addressed the “potential role of SSEs on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) pandemic” and were published before 20th of August 2020. Overall, ninety-eight articles were found eligible and reviewed. Specific screening strategies within potential super spreading host groups can also help to efficiently manage severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) epidemics, in contrast to the partially effective general restriction measures. The effect of SSEs on previous SARS epidemics has been documented in detail. However, the respective potential impact of SSEs on SARS-COV-2 outbreak is composed and presented in the current review, thereby implying the warranted effort required for effective SSE preventive strategies, which may lead to overt global community health benefits. This is crucial for SARS-COV-2 pandemic containment as the vaccine(s) development process will take considerable time to safely establish its potential usefulness for future clinical usage.
- Pandemics; epidemics; coronavirus; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; disease outbreaks; cost of illness; mass vaccination
How to Cite
Dong N, Yang X, Ye L, Chen K, Chan EW-C, Yang M, et al. Genomic and protein structure modelling analysis depicts the origin and infectivity of 2019-nCoV, a new coronavirus which caused a pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China. bioRxiv. 2020;32(1):2020.01.20.913368-2020.01.20.
Petrosillo N, Viceconte G, Ergonul O, Ippolito G, Petersen E. COVID-19, SARS and MERS: are they closely related? Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2020.
Wan Y, Shang J, Graham R, Baric RS, Li F. Receptor Recognition by the Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan: an Analysis Based on Decade-Long Structural Studies of SARS Coronavirus. Journal of Virology. 2020;94(7).
Lloyd-Smith JO, Schreiber SJ, Kopp PE, Getz WM. Superspreading and the effect of individual variation on disease emergence. Nature. 2005;438(7066):355-9.
Riley S. Transmission Dynamics of the Etiological Agent of SARS in Hong Kong: Impact of Public Health Interventions. Science. 2003;300(5627):1961-6.
Kucharski AJ, Althaus CL. The role of superspreading in Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission. Eurosurveillance. 2015;20(25).
Wong G, Liu W, Liu Y, Zhou B, Bi Y, Gao GF. MERS, SARS, and Ebola: The Role of Super-Spreaders in Infectious Disease. Cell Host & Microbe. 2015;18(4):398-401.
Adegboye OA, Elfaki F. Network Analysis of MERS Coronavirus within Households, Communities, and Hospitals to Identify Most Centralized and Super-Spreading in the Arabian Peninsula, 2012 to 2016. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology. 2018;2018:1-9.
Frieden TR, Lee CT. Identifying and Interrupting Superspreading Events—Implications for Control of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(6).
Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet. 2020;395(10227):912-20.
Holt-Lunstad J, Smith TB, Baker M, Harris T, Stephenson D. Loneliness and Social Isolation as Risk Factors for Mortality. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2015;10(2):227-37.
Pae C-U. Why Systematic Review rather than Narrative Review? Psychiatry Investigation. 2015;12(3):417.
Ng SKC. Possible role of an animal vector in the SARS outbreak at Amoy Gardens. The Lancet. 2003;362(9383):570-2.
Perlman S, Netland J. Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2009;7(6):439-50.
Shen Z, Ning F, Zhou W, He X, Lin C, Chin DP, et al. Superspreading SARS Events, Beijing, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(2):256-60.
Taguchi F, Matsuyama S. Soluble Receptor Potentiates Receptor-Independent Infection by Murine Coronavirus. Journal of Virology. 2002;76(3):950-8.
Woolhouse MEJ, Dye C, Etard JF, Smith T, Charlwood JD, Garnett GP, et al. Heterogeneities in the transmission of infectious agents: Implications for the design of control programs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1997;94(1):338-42.
Frulloni L, Lunardi C, Simone R, Dolcino M, Scattolini C, Falconi M, et al. Identification of a Novel Antibody Associated with Autoimmune Pancreatitis. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009;361(22):2135-42.
Guarneri F, Guarneri C, Benvenga S. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune pancreatitis: role of carbonic anhydrase via molecular mimicry? Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 2005;9(3):741-4.
Kountouras J, Zavos C, Gavalas E, Tzilves D. Challenge in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Potential Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection via Molecular Mimicry. Gastroenterology. 2007;133(1):368-9.
Zhang D-h, Wu K-l, Zhang X, Deng S-q, Peng B. In silico screening of Chinese herbal medicines with the potential to directly inhibit 2019 novel coronavirus. Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2020;18(2):152-8.
Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen Y-M, Wang W, Song Z-G, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. 2020;579(7798):265-9.
Menachery VD, Yount BL, Debbink K, Agnihothram S, Gralinski LE, Plante JA, et al. A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence. Nature Medicine. 2015;21(12):1508-13.
Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet. 2020;395(10224):565-74.
Loewe L, Hill WG. The population genetics of mutations: good, bad and indifferent. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2010;365(1544):1153-67.
Yang Y, Peng F, Wang R, Guan K, Jiang T, Xu G, et al. The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2020;109:102434-.
Rojas M, Rodriguez Y, Monsalve DM, Acosta-Ampudia Y, Camacho B, Gallo JE, et al. Convalescent plasma in Covid-19: Possible mechanisms of action. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2020:102554-.
Kowalik MM, Trzonkowski P, Łasińska-Kowara M, Mital A, Smiatacz T, Jaguszewski M. COVID-19 — toward a comprehensive understanding of the disease. Cardiology Journal. 2020.
Wurtzer S, Marechal V, Mouchel J-M, Moulin L. Time course quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Parisian wastewaters correlates with COVID-19 confirmed cases. medRxiv. 2020:2020.04.12.20062679-2020.04.12.
Zhou P, Fan H, Lan T, Yang X-L, Shi W-F, Zhang W, et al. Fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin. Nature. 2018;556(7700):255-8.
Brown JD. Cannabidiol as prophylaxis for SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19? Unfounded claims versus potential risks of medications during the pandemic. Research in social & administrative pharmacy: RSAP. 2020.
Vidondo B. Amplification of the basic reproduction number in cattle farm networks. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(4):e0191257-e.
Liu Y, Gayle AA, Wilder-Smith A, Rocklöv J. The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2020;27(2).
Wu JCea. The current treatment landscape of irritable bowel syndrome in adults in Hong Kong: consensus statements. Hong Kong Medical Journal. 2017:641–7.
Hong Kong Department of Health. Outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) at Amoy Gardens, Kowloon Bay, Hong Kong Main Findings of the Investigation. 1993.
Legislative Council Select Committee to inquire into the handling of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak by the Government and the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong. 2003.
McKinney Kr GYYLTG. Environmental transmission of SARS at Amoy Gardens. J Environ Health. 2006;68(9):26-30.
Al-Tawfiq JA, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Journal of Hospital Infection. 2020;105(2):111-2.
Forster P, Forster L, Renfrew C, Forster M. Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2020;117(17):9241-3.
Rasche A, Sander A-L, Corman VM, Drexler JF. Evolutionary biology of human hepatitis viruses. Journal of Hepatology. 2019;70(3):501-20.
Taguchi F. Coronavirus Receptors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005. p. 821-31.
Wei WE, Li Z, Chiew CJ, Yong SE, Toh MP, Lee VJ. Presymptomatic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 — Singapore, January 23–March 16, 2020. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2020;69(14):411-5.
Gu Y. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Transmission during Presymptomatic Phase, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1737-9.
Thompson RN, Gilligan CA, Cunniffe NJ. Detecting Presymptomatic Infection Is Necessary to Forecast Major Epidemics in the Earliest Stages of Infectious Disease Outbreaks. PLOS Computational Biology. 2016;12(4):e1004836-e.
Rocklöv J, Sjödin H, Wilder-Smith A. COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: estimating the epidemic potential and effectiveness of public health countermeasures. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2020.
Wang C, Liu L, Hao X, Guo H, Wang Q, Huang J, et al. Evolving Epidemiology and Impact of Non-pharmaceutical Interventions on the Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. medRxiv. 2020:2020.03.03.20030593-2020.03.03.
Gao Y, Yan L, Huang Y, Liu F, Zhao Y, Cao L, et al. Structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from COVID-19 virus. Science. 2020:eabb7498-eabb.
Goldhill DH, te Velthuis AJW, Fletcher RA, Langat P, Zambon M, Lackenby A, et al. The mechanism of resistance to favipiravir in influenza. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(45):11613-8.
Forni D, Filippi G, Cagliani R, De Gioia L, Pozzoli U, Al-Daghri N, et al. The heptad repeat region is a major selection target in MERS-CoV and related coronaviruses. Scientific Reports. 2015;5(1):14480-.
Tang H, Liu Y, Huang G. Current Status and Development Strategy for Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) in China. Sustainability. 2019;11(11):3008-.
Chowell Gea. Transmission characteristics of MERS and SARS in the healthcare setting: a comparative study. BMC Medicine. 2015;13(1):210.
Gormley Mea. Pathogen cross-transmission via building sanitary plumbing systems in a full scale pilot test-rig. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(2):e0171556.
Lau Y-L. SARS: future research and vaccine. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews,. 2004;5(4):300-3.
Li Yea. Predicting super spreading events during the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemics in Hong Kong and Singapore. American journal of epidemiology,. 2004; 160(8):719–28.
Shaw K. The 2003 SARS outbreak and its impact on infection control practices. Public Health. 2006;120(1):8-14.
Cave E. COVID-19 Super-spreaders: Definitional Quandaries and Implications. Asian Bioethics Review. 2020;12(2):235-42.
Xu X-Kea. Reconstruction of Transmission Pairs for Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Mainland China: Estimation of Superspreading Events, Serial Interval, and Hazard of Infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020.
Kwok KOea. Inferring super-spreading from transmission clusters of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, Japan, and Singapore. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2020;105(4):682-5.
Chau T-N, Lee K-C, Yao H, Tsang T-Y, Chow T-C, Yeung Y-C, et al. SARS-associated viral hepatitis caused by a novel coronavirus: Report of three cases. Hepatology. 2004;39(2):302-10.
Tu Y-F, Chien C-S, Yarmishyn AA, Lin Y-Y, Luo Y-H, Lin Y-T, et al. A Review of SARS-CoV-2 and the Ongoing Clinical Trials. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020;21(7):2657-.
Luk HKH, Li X, Fung J, Lau SKP, Woo PCY. Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of SARS coronavirus. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2019;71:21-30.
Li Y-H, Hu C-Y, Wu N-P, Yao H-P, Li L-J. Molecular Characteristics, Functions, and Related Pathogenicity of MERS-CoV Proteins. Engineering. 2019;5(5):940-7.
Weiss SR, Navas-Martin S. Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 2005;69(4):635-64.
Mousavizadeh L, Ghasemi S. Genotype and phenotype of COVID-19: Their roles in pathogenesis. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. 2020.
Hu B, Ge X, Wang L-F, Shi Z. Bat origin of human coronaviruses. Virology Journal. 2015;12(1):221-.
Knobler S MALS. The impact of SARS epidemic. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2004.
Lee Jw MWJ. Estimating the global economic costs of SARS. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2004.
Kingston D. Memorandum on the infections hazards of the common communion cup with especial reference to aids. European Journal of Epidemiology. 1988;4(2):164-70.
Gill ON. The hazard of infection from the shared communion cup. Journal of Infection. 1988;16(1):3-23.
Pellerin J, Edmond MB. Infections associated with religious rituals. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2013;17(11):e945-e8.
Corstjens PLAM, Abrams WR, Malamud D. Saliva and viral infections. Periodontology 2000. 2016;70(1):93-110.
Pintilie H, Brook G. Commentary: A review of risk of hepatitis B and C transmission through biting or spitting. Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2018;25(12):1423-8.
Peng X, Xu X, Li Y, Cheng L, Zhou X, Ren B. Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice. International Journal of Oral Science. 2020;12(1):9-.
Xu R, Cui B, Duan X, Zhang P, Zhou X, Yuan Q. Saliva: potential diagnostic value and transmission of 2019-nCoV. International Journal of Oral Science. 2020;12(1):11-.
Kidd-Ljunggren K, Holmberg A, Bläckberg J, Lindqvist B. High levels of hepatitis B virus DNA in body fluids from chronic carriers. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2006;64(4):352-7.
Kountouras J TEMSSCTGPA, et al. Experience of entecavir administration in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Annals of gastroenterology. 2010;23 (Suppl)(57 (in Greek)).
AminJafari A, Ghasemi S. The possible of immunotherapy for COVID-19: A systematic review. International Immunopharmacology. 2020;83:106455-.
Dimmock K ENJLAJ. Introduction to modern virology. Blackwell ed. New York, NY2007. 65- p.
Saif LJ. Animal coronavirus vaccines: Lessons for SARS. Developments in Biologicals. 2005;119:129-40.
Jimenez-Guardeño JM, Regla-Nava JA, Nieto-Torres JL, DeDiego ML, Castaño-Rodriguez C, Fernandez-Delgado R, et al. Identification of the Mechanisms Causing Reversion to Virulence in an Attenuated SARS-CoV for the Design of a Genetically Stable Vaccine. PLOS Pathogens. 2015;11(10):e1005215-e.
Bolles M, Deming D, Long K, Agnihothram S, Whitmore A, Ferris M, et al. A Double-Inactivated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Vaccine Provides Incomplete Protection in Mice and Induces Increased Eosinophilic Proinflammatory Pulmonary Response upon Challenge. Journal of Virology. 2011;85(23):12201-15.
Peeples L. News Feature: Avoiding pitfalls in the pursuit of a COVID-19 vaccine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2020;117(15):8218-21.
Sheahan T, Whitmore A, Long K, Ferris M, Rockx B, Funkhouser W, et al. Successful Vaccination Strategies That Protect Aged Mice from Lethal Challenge from Influenza Virus and Heterologous Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Journal of Virology. 2011;85(1):217-30.
Spruth M, Kistner O, Savidis-Dacho H, Hitter E, Crowe B, Gerencer M, et al. A double-inactivated whole virus candidate SARS coronavirus vaccine stimulates neutralising and protective antibody responses. Vaccine. 2006;24(5):652-61.
Yap FHY, Gomersall CD, Fung KSC, Ho PL, Ho OM, Lam PKN, et al. Increase in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Acquisition Rate and Change in Pathogen Pattern Associated with an Outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004;39(4):511-6.
Hotez PJ, Bottazzi ME, Corry DB. The potential role of Th17 immune responses in coronavirus immunopathology and vaccine-induced immune enhancement. Microbes and Infection. 2020.
Wu D, Yang XO. TH17 responses in cytokine storm of COVID-19: An emerging target of JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. 2020.
Chow SCS. Specific epitopes of the structural and hypothetical proteins elicit variable humoral responses in SARS patients. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2006;59(5):468-76.
Melsew YA, Gambhir M, Cheng AC, McBryde ES, Denholm JT, Tay EL, et al. The role of super-spreading events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission: evidence from contact tracing. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2019;19(1):244-.
Drobeniuc J, Greene-Montfort T, Le N-T, Mixson-Hayden TR, Ganova-Raeva L, Dong C, et al. Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):218-22.
Komas NP, Ghosh S, Abdou-Chekaraou M, Pradat P, Al Hawajri N, Manirakiza A, et al. Hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections in the Central African Republic, twenty-five years after a fulminant hepatitis outbreak, indicate continuing spread in asymptomatic young adults. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2018;12(4):e0006377-e.
Chan C-Mea. Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 Is an Important Surface Attachment Factor That Facilitates Entry of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Journal of Virology Edited by S Perlman. 2016;90(20):9114–27.
Mothes Wea. Virus Cell-to-Cell Transmission. Journal of Virology. 2010; 84(17):8360–8.
Peiris Jea. Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study’. The Lancet. 2003;361(9371):1767–72.
Spiegel Mea. Interaction of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus with dendritic cells. The Journal of general virology. 2006;87(7):1953–60.
Chen MIC LS-C, Leong H-N, Leo Y-S. . Understanding the super-spreading events of SARS in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2006;35:390–4.
Sung JJY YI, Zhong NS, Tsoi K. . Super-spreading events of SARS in a hospital setting: who, when, and why? . Hong Kong Med J = Xianggang yi xue za zhi 2009;15(Suppl 8):29–33.
Stein RA. Super-spreaders in infectious diseases. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;15(8):e510-e3.
- Abstract Viewed: 73 times
- pdf Downloaded: 25 times