Introduction: Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (i-I/R) is an insult associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Herein we evaluate the dose-response effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on lung inflammation induced by i-I/R.
Methods: Mice were subjected to mesenteric artery occlusion (45 min) and killed after clamp release and intestinal reperfusion (2h). Increasing doses (1, 3, 5 and 7,5 J/cm2) of laser irradiation (660 nm) was carried out on the mice skin over the upper bronchus for 5 min after initiating reperfusion. Neutrophils activation was determined by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The mRNA expression and protein concentration of inflammatory mediators IL-1β, IL-6, TNF and IL-10 in lung were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively.
Results: With exception of 1J/cm2, LLLT reduced MPO activity as well as IL-1β levels in the lungs from inflamed mice. LLLT was also markedly effective in reducing both IL-6 and TNF expression and levels in the lungs from mice submitted to i-I/R in all laser doses studied. Otherwise, LLLT significantly increased the protein levels of IL-10 in inflamed mice by i-I/R; however only in the dose of 1J/cm2.
Conclusion: We conclude that the LLLT is able to control the neutrophils activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines release into the lungs in a model of i-I/R in mice.
Van Soeren MH, Diehl-Jones WL, Maykut RJ, Haddara WM. Pathophysiology and implications for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome. AACN Clin Issues 2000;11:179-97.
Kuzu MA, Köksoy C, Kuzu I, Gürhan I, Ergün H, Demirpence E. Role of integrins and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 in lung injury after intestinal ischemia reperfusion. Am J Surg 2002; 183:1: 70-4.
Cavriani G, Oliveira-Filho RM, Trezena AG, da Silva ZL, Domingos HV, de Arruda MJ, et al. Lung microvascular permeability and neutrophil recruitment are differently regulated by nitric oxide in a rat model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Eur J Pharmacol 2004;494: 241–9.
Carden DL, Granger DN. Pathophysiology of ischemia reperfusion injury. J Pathol 2000; 190:255.
Souza DG, Mendonça VA, de A Castro MS, Poole S, Teixeira MM. Role of tachykinin NK receptors on the local and remote injuries following ischemia and reperfusion of the superior mesenteric artery in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 2002;135:303.
Yamamoto S, Tanabe M, Wakabayashi G, Shimazu M, Matsumoto K, Kitajima M. The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta in ischemia reperfusion injury of the rat small intestine. J Surg Res 2001; 99:134.
Feldmann M, Brennan FM, Foxwell BM, Maini RN. The role of TNF-alpha and IL-1 in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Dir Autoimmun 2001;3:188.
Koga S, Ogawa S, Kuwabara K, Brett J, Leavy JA, Ryan J, et al. Synthesis and release of interleukin 1 by reoxygenated human mononuclear phagocytes. J Clin Invest 1992;90:1007.
Suzuki K, Murtuza B, Smolenski RT, Sammut IA, Suzuki N, Kaneda Y, et al.Overexpression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist provides cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion injury associated with reduction in apoptosis. Circulation 2001; 104:I308-I3
Souza DG, Guabiraba R, Pinho V, Bristow A, Poole S, Teixeira MM. IL-1 driven endogenous IL-10 production protects against the systemic and local acute inflammatory response following intestinal reperfusion injury. J Immunol 2003; 170:4759-66.
Bjordal JM, Johnson MI, Iversen V, Aimbire F, Lopes-Martins RA. Low level laser therapy in acute pain: a systemic review of possible mechanisms of action and clinical effects in randomized placebo-controlled trials. Photomed Laser Surg 2006; 24:2,158-68.
Chow RT, Johnson MI, Lopes Martins RA, Bjordal JM. Efficacy of low level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta analysis of randomised placebo or active treatment controlled trials. Lancet 2009; 374 (9705): 1897-1898.
Albertini R, Aimbire FS, Correa FI, Ribeiro W, Cogo JC, Antunes E, et al. Effects of different protocol doses of low power gallium-aluminum arsenate (Ga-Al-As) laser radiation (650nm) on carrageenan induced rat paw oedema. J Photochem Photobiol B 2006; 74:2-3,101-7.
Xavier M, David DR, de Souza RA, Arrieiro AN, Miranda H, Santana ET, et al. Anti inflammatory effect of low level light emitting diode therapy on Achilles tendinitis in rats. Lasers Surg Med 2010; 42:6:553-8.
Landyshev IuS, Avdeeva NV, Goborov ND, Krasavina NP, Tikhonova GA, Tkacheva SI. Efficacy of low intensity laser irradiation and sodium nedocromil in the complex treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. Ter Arkh 2002; 74:3:25-8.
Nikitin AV, Esaulenko IE, Shatalova OL. [Effectiveness of laser puncture in elderly patients with bronchial asthma]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2008; 6:38-9. Russian
de Lima FM, Costa MS, Albertini R. Silva Jr JA, Aimbire F. Low level laser therapy (LLLT): Attenuation of cholinergic hyperreactivity, beta adrenergic hyporesponsiveness and TNF alpha mRNA expression in rat bronchi segments in E. coli Lipopolysaccharide- induced airway inflammation by a NF-KB dependent mechanism. Lasers Surg Med 2009; 41:68-74.
de Lima FM, Vitoretti L, Coelho F, Albertini R, Breithaupt-Faloppa AC, de Lima WT, et al. Suppressive effect of low level laser therapy on tracheal hyperresponsiveness and lung inflammation in rat subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. Lasers Med Sci 2013; 28:2,551-64.
de Lima FM, Villaverde AB, Albertini R, Corrêa JC, Carvalho RL, Munin E, et al. Dual effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the acute lung inflammation induced by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion: Action on anti and pro inflammatory cytokines. Lasers Surg Med 2011; 43:410-20.
Seitz M, Loetscher P, Dewald B, Towbin H, Gallati H, Baggiolini M. Interleukin-10 differentially regulates cytokines inhibitor and chemokines release from blood mononuclear cells and fibroblasts. Eur J Immunol 1995; 25:4:1129-32.
Soares AL, Coelho FR, Guabiraba R, Kamal M, Vargaftig BB, Li L, et al. Tumor necrosis factor is not associated with intestinal ischemia reperfusion induced lung inflammation. Shock 2010;34(3): 306-13
Mikhaĭlov VA, Aleksandrova OIu, Gol'dina EM. [The immunomodulating action of low-energy laser radiation in the treatment of bronchial asthma]. Vopr Kuortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 1998; 4:23-5. Russian.
Milojevic M, Kuruc V. [Laser biostimulation in the treatment of pleurisy]. Med Pregl 2003; 56(11-12):516-20.
Kashanskaia EP, Fedorov AA. [Low intensity laser radiation in the combined treatment of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis]. Vopr Kurortol Fiz Kult 2009; 2:19-22. Russian.
Nikolaeva OD. [ Use of electropuncture diagnostics and laseropuncture in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis]. Lik Sprava 2006;1-2:31-4. Russian.
Aimbire F, Ligeiro de Oliveira AP, Albertini R, JC Corrêa, CB Ladeira de Campos, JP Lyon, et al. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) decreases pulmonary microvascular leakage, neutrophil influx and IL-1β levels in airway and lung from rat subjected to LPS-induced inflammation. Inflammation 2008;31(3):189-97.
Mafra de Lima F, Villaverde AB, Salgado MA, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Munin E, Albertini R, et al. Low intensity laser therapy (LILT) in vivo acts on the neutrophils recruitment and chemokines/ cytokines levels in a model of acute pulmonary inflammation induced by aerosol of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli in rat. J Photochem Photobiol B 2010;101(3): 271-78.
Souza DG, Cassali GD, Poole S, Teixeira MM. Effects of inhibition of PDE4 and TNF alpha on local and remote injuries following ischemia and reperfusion injury. Br J Pharmacol 2001;134:985.
Lopes NN, Plapler H, Chavantes MC, Lalla RV, Yoshimura EM, Alves MT. Cyclooxygenase -2 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in 5-fluorouracil induced oral mucositis in hamsters: Evaluation of two low intensity laser protocols. Support Care Cancer 2009;17:11:1409, 15.
Gál P, Mokrý M, Vidinský B, Kilík R, Depta F, Harakalová M, et al. Effect of equal daily doses achieved by different power densities of low level laser therapy at 635 nm on open skin wound healing in normal and corticosteroid treated rats. Lasers Med Sci 2009;24:4:539-47.
Farmer DG, McDiarmid SV, Kuniyoshi J, Robert ME, Shaked A, Busuttil RW. Intragraft expression of messenger RNA for Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha is a predictor of rat small intestine transplant rejection. J Surg Res 1994; 57(1): 138-42.
Menéndez R, Sahuquillo-Arce JM, Reyes S, Martínez R, Polverino E, Cillóniz C, et al. Cytokine activation patterns and biomarkers are influenced by microorganisms in community acquired pneumonia. Chest 2012;141:6:1537-45.
O'Grady NP1, Preas HL, Pugin J, Fiuza C, Tropea M, Reda D, et al. Local inflammatory response following bronchial endotoxin instillation in humans. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163(7): 1591-8.
Kasama T, Strieter RM, Lukacs NW, Burdick MD, Kunkel SL. Regulation of neutrophil derived chemokine expression. by IL-10. J Immunol 1994;152:7:3559-69.
Pajkrt D, Van der Poll T, Levi M, Cutler DL, Affrime MB, van den Ende A, et al. Interleukin-10 inhibits activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during human endotoxemia. Blood 1997;89:8:2701-5.
Lo CJ, Fu M, Cryer HG. Interleukin 10 inhibits alveolar macrophage production of inflammatory mediators involved in adult respiratory distress syndrome. J Surg Res 1998;79:2:179-84.
Souza DG, Teixeira MM. The balance between the production of tumor necrosis fator alpha and interleukin 10 determines tissue injury and lethality during reperfusion injury. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2005; 1:59-66.
Inoue G, Effect of interleukin 10 (IL-10) on experimental LPS induced acute lung injury. J Infect Chemother 2000; 6(1): 51-60.