Introduction: The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of low level laser irradiation (LLLI), by lasers with different wavelengths, on glycated catalase enzyme in vitro experimentally. This is done by measuring the activity and structure properties of glycated catalase enzyme. The structure properties were evaluated with circular dichroism (CD) and fluoroscopy methods. Three continuous wave (CW) lasers in visible spectrum (λ= 450, 530, 638 nm) and a 100-ns pulsed laser in infrared spectrum (λ= 905 nm) were chosen for comparison. For the infrared laser, same effects have been investigated for different energy doses. The effect of photon energy (hυ) at different wavelengths was measured on activity, CD, and fluoroscopy properties of catalase, and compared with the control group [samples without irradiation]. The energy intensity of laser should not exceed 0.1 J/cm2. Experiments were performed on glycated catalase between 2 to 16 weeks after glycation of catalase. The LLLI effect has also been investigated on the samples, by comparing the catalase activity, CD and fluoroscopy for different wavelengths.
Results: Our results indicate, the decrease in catalase activity as a function of glycation time (weeks) for all samples, and a slight increase on its activity by different laser wavelengths irradiation for any fixed period of glycation time. Finally, as the laser’s photon energy (hυ) increases, the catalase activity also increases. More specifically, the blue laser (λ= 450nm) has the most and the red laser (λ = 638nm), has the least effect, and the green laser (λ = 530nm) has the medium effect on catalase activity. Furthermore, pulsed laser had an additional effect by increasing energy dosage. As we expected in all experiments, the increase in the catalase activity was coincident with the decrease in catalase fluoroscopy and CD parameters.
Chance B, Sies H, Boveris A. Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiological reviews. 1979;59(3):527-605.
Fehér J, Csomós G, Vereckei A. Free radical reactions in medicine: Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.
Brownlee M. The pathological implications of protein glycation. Clinical and investigative medicine Medecine clinique et experimentale. 1995;18(4):275-81.
Bourdon E, Loreau N, Blache D. Glucose and free radicals impair the antioxidant properties of serum albumin. The FASEB journal. 1999;13(2):233-44.
Maritim A, Sanders a, Watkins rJ. Diabetes, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology. 2003;17(1):24-38.
Kalousova M, Skrha J, Zima T. Advanced glycation end-products and advanced oxidation protein products in patients with diabetes mellitus. Physiological Research. 2002;51(6):597-604.
Yan SD, Schmidt AM, Anderson GM, Zhang J, Brett J, Zou YS, et al. Enhanced cellular oxidant stress by the interaction of advanced glycation end products with their receptors/binding proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1994;269(13):9889-97.
Mullarkey CJ, Edelstein D, Brownlee M. Free radical generation by early glycation products: a mechanism for accelerated atherogenesis in diabetes. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1990;173(3):932-9.
Baynes JW. Role of oxidative stress in development of complications in diabetes. Diabetes. 1991;40(4):405-12.
Baynes JW, Thorpe SR. Role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications: a new perspective on an old paradigm. Diabetes. 1999;48(1):1-9.
Choi M-S, Jeong MJ, Park YB, Kim SR, Jung UJ. The Leaf of Diospyros kaki Thumb Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage in Mice with Type 2 Diabetes. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;21(4):378.
CHEN YP, LIU YJ, WANG XL, REN ZY, Yue M. Effect of Microwave and He‐Ne Laser on Enzyme Activity and Biophoton Emission of Isatis indigotica Fort. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 2005;47(7):849-55.
Sokolovic D, Djindjic B, Nikolic J, Bjelakovic G, Pavlovic D, Kocic G, et al. Melatonin reduces oxidative stress induced by chronic exposure of microwave radiation from mobile phones in rat brain. Journal of radiation research. 2008;49(6):579-86.
Horikoshi S, Nakamura K, Kawaguchi M, Kondo J, Serpone N. Effect of microwave radiation on the activity of catalase. decomposition of hydrogen peroxide under microwave and conventional heating. RSC Advances. 2016;6(53):48237-44.
Sallam SM, Awad AM. Effect of static magnetic field on the electrical properties and enzymes function of rat liver. Romanian J Biophys. 2008;4:337-47.
Vojisavljevic V, Pirogova E, Cosic I, editors. Influence of electromagnetic radiation on enzyme kinetics. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2007 EMBS 2007 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE; 2007: IEEE.
Fedoseyeva G, Karu T, Lyapunova T, Pomoshnikova N, Meissel M. The activation of yeast metabolism with He-Ne laser radiations-II. Activity of enzymes of oxidative and phosphorous metabolism. Lasers Life Sci. 1988;2:147-54.
Karu T, Lyapunova T, Pomoshnikova N. The activation of yeast metabolism with He-Ne laser radiation. IV. Relationship between the activity of catalase and stimulation of protein synthesis. Lasers in the life sciences. 1993;5:251-.
Denadai AS, Aydos RD, Silva IS, Olmedo L, Cardoso de Senna B, Kato da Silva B, et al. Acute effects of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) on oxidative stress levels in diabetic rats with skin wounds. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2015;11:85-9.
Silva Macedo R, Peres Leal M, Braga TT, Barioni ÉD, de Oliveira Duro S, Ratto Tempestini Horliana AC, et al. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes. Mediators of inflammation. 2016;2016.
Chen H, Wang H, Li Y, Liu W, Wang C, Chen Z. Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. AIP Advances. 2016;6(4):045018.
Unnikrishna Pillai P, Padma N. Studies On The Effect Of Laser Radiation And Other Mutagens On Plants: Cochin University of Science And Technology; 1998.
Simões A, Ganzerla E, Yamaguti PM, de Paula Eduardo C, Nicolau J. Effect of diode laser on enzymatic activity of parotid glands of diabetic rats. Lasers in medical science. 2009;24(4):591-6.
Simoes A, de Oliveira E, Campos L, Nicolau J. Ionic and histological studies of salivary glands in rats with diabetes and their glycemic state after laser irradiation. Photomedicine and laser surgery. 2009;27(6):877-83.
Ibuki FK, Simoes A, Nogueira FN. Antioxidant enzymatic defense in salivary glands of streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats: a temporal study. Cell biochemistry and function. 2010;28(6):503-8.
Simoes A, Nogueira FN, de Paula Eduardo C, Nicolau J. Diode laser decreases the activity of catalase on submandibular glands of diabetic rats. Photomedicine and laser surgery. 2010;28(1):91-5.
Campos L, Nicolau J, Arana‐Chavez VE, Simoes A. Effect of Laser Phototherapy on Enzymatic Activity of Salivary Glands of Hamsters Treated with 5‐Fluorouracil. Photochemistry and photobiology. 2014;90(3):667-72.
Simões A, Siqueira WL, Lamers ML, Santos MF, de Paula Eduardo C, Nicolau J. Laser phototherapy effect on protein metabolism parameters of rat salivary glands. Lasers in medical science. 2009;24(2):202-8.
Da Silva NS, Potrich JW. Effect of GaAlAs laser irradiation on enzyme activity. Photomedicine and laser surgery. 2010;28(3):431-4.
Shaklai N, Garlick RL, Bunn HF. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of human serum albumin alters its conformation and function. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1984;259(6):3812-7.
Jafarnejad A, Bathaie S, Nakhjavani M, Hassan M, Banasadegh S. The improvement effect of L‐Lys as a chemical chaperone on STZ‐induced diabetic rats, protein structure and function. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. 2008;24(1):64-73.
Mirmiranpour H, Bathaie SZ, Khaghani S, Nakhjavani M, Kebriaeezadeh A. Investigation of the mechanism (s) involved in decreasing increased fibrinogen activity in hyperglycemic conditions using L-lysine supplementation. Thrombosis research. 2012;130(3):e13-e9.
Coussons PJ, Jacoby J, McKay A, Kelly SM, Price NC, Hunt JV. Glucose modification of human serum albumin: a structural study. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1997;22(7):1217-27.
Nelson SK, Bose SK, Grunwald GK, Myhill P, McCord JM. The induction of human superoxide dismutase and catalase in vivo: a fundamentally new approach to antioxidant therapy. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2006;40(2):341-7.
Ogino T, Okada S. Oxidative damage of bovine serum albumin and other enzyme proteins by iron-chelate complexes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects. 1995;1245(3):359-65.
Gopalkrishnapillai B, Nadanathangam V, Karmakar N, Anand S, Misra A. Evaluation of autofluorescent property of hemoglobin-advanced glycation end product as a long-term glycemic index of diabetes. Diabetes. 2003;52(4):1041-6.
Jackson DY, King DS, Chmielewski J, Singh S, Schultz PG. General approach to the synthesis of short. alpha.-helical peptides. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1991;113(24):9391-2.
Chapra SC, Canale RP. Numerical methods for engineers: McGraw-Hill New York; 1998.
Silveira PCL, Silva LA, Freitas TP, Latini A, Pinho RA. Effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) at different wavelengths and doses on oxidative stress and fibrogenesis parameters in an animal model of wound healing. Lasers in medical science. 2011;26(1):125-31.
Guaraldo SA, Serra AJ, Amadio EM, Antônio EL, Silva F, Portes LA, et al. The effect of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress and functional fitness in aged rats subjected to swimming: an aerobic exercise. Lasers in medical science. 2016;31(5):833-40.