ISSN: 1735-1308

Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019)

Best Reviewer


ORIGINAL PAPER (ENDOUROLOGY AND STONE DISEASE)


Comparison of Flexible Ureterorenoscopy and Mini Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Multiple Renal Calculi in 10-30 mm Size

Fatih Yanaral, Faruk Ozgor, Onur Kucuktopcu, Omer Sarilar, Ali Ayranci, Metin Savun, Bahar Yuksel, Murat Binbay

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 326-330
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.3310

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of flexible ureterorenoscopy (f-URS) and mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-perc) in the management of 10-30 millimeter multiple renal stones.

Materials and Methods: The charts of patients who underwent f-URS or mini-perc for multiple kidney stones between January 2011 and July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with multiple 10-30–mm-sized renal stones were enrolled in the study. A total of 374 patients underwent mini-perc and 85 patients met the study inclusion criteria. In the same period, f-URS was performed in 562 patients, and 163 had 10-30–mm multiple renal stones. We selected 85 patients to serve as the control group from this cohort using propensity score matching with respect to the patient’s age, ASA score, number, size, and location of stones to avoid potential bias between groups.

Results: The mean operation time and fluoroscopy screening time (FST) was significantly longer in the mini-perc group (P = .001 and P = .001, respectively). The mean hospitalization time was 76.9±38.7 hours in the mini-perc group and 25.0±27.7 hours in the f-URS group (P = .001). Post-operative complications, according to the Clavien classification system, were significantly more frequent in the mini-perc group (P = .003). The stone-free rate was 87% in the f-URS group and 83.5% in the mini-perc group (P = .66).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that f-URS and mini-perc were effective treatment options for multiple renal stones 10-30 mm in size. However, f-URS was associated with a significantly lower complication rate, shorter operation time, shorter FST, and shorter hospitalization time.

The Efficacy of Early Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy for the Treatment of Ureteral Stones

Chang Hee Kim, Dong Seong Shin, Tae Beom Kim, Han Jung

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 331-336
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4537

Purpose: To determine the efficacy of early extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (e-ESWL) in colic patients with ureteral stones and the patient criteria for the most effective e-ESWL.

Materials and Methods: 335 patients who received ESWL due to ureteral stone, were divide in two groups: e-ESWL and d-ESWL by the critical cut-off point. we performed the sensitivity and specificity cut-off analyses to identified the critical cut off point. To assess the difference in the factors affecting ESWL success, univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were implemented with using variables: ESWL success; age; gender; BMI; comor­bidity; serum creatinine; stone size; stone location; stone laterality; Hounsfield unit (HU); presence of hydrone­phrosis; and presence of tissue rim. The subgroup analysis for the screened variables was conducted.

Result: Optimal e-ESWL was defined to occur within a 24-hour critical cut-off time. Multivariate regression anal­ysis concluded with screened variables: age, stone size, stone location, and HU, that ESWL success was 1.85-fold higher in the e-ESWL patient group. The subgroup analyses the following conditions: ? 65 years old by 1.784- fold; ?10 mm stone size by 1.866-fold; mid to distal stone location by 2.234-fold; and ? 815 HU by 2.130-fold. When all the conditions were met, the e-ESWL success was 3.22-fold higher.

Conclusion: In case of colic due to ureteral stones, the patient is recommended to receive a lithotripsy within the first 24 hours. E-ESWL is recommended especially in patients who are ? 65 years, or with a ureteral stone HU ? 815, sized ? 10 mm, or in a mid to distal location.

Is screening of Staghorn Stones cost-effective?

Ali Muhammad Kavosh, Ali Reza Aminsharifi, Vahid Keshtkar, Abdosaleh Jafari, Gholamreza Abdollahifard

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 337-342
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4425

Background: Staghorn stones can cause damage to the kidneys and are considered as the one of the main cause of renal failure. If they are identified during the initial stages of diagnosis, kidney damage can be prevented. Screening can lead to a better diagnosis. Before the screening, it is necessary to calculate the cost-effectiveness of screening.

Methods: Using the possibility calculations of staghorn stones in the society and different age groups as well as a decision tree model, the screening costs and effectiveness were calculated against no screening. Effectiveness was determined based on the number of prevented cases of renal failure. Ultimately, the incremental cost-effectiveness ration (ICER) was calculated and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) method based on the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and subgroup analysis was done for different age groups. In addition, the robustness of results was examined by sensitivity analysis.

Results: The results of decision tree showed that in the screening group, the expected cost was 8815997 USD and the expected effectiveness was 358 and in the no-screening group, the expected cost was 3954214 USD and the expected effectiveness was 258. Based on the results of the study, screening compared with no screening would increase the cost by 4861783                  USD and effectiveness would increase by 100 people. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) showed that for each unit of increase in effectiveness of screening compared with no screening, would lead to an increase the cost by 48618 USD. The results also indicated that screening 30-70-year-old people compared with other age groups (20-70 and 25-70) if done every two years, could reduce the mean costs per preventing each case of renal failure.     

Conclusion: If screening staghorn stones are done every two years for 30-70-year-old individuals, it would be cost effective considering WHO method and 3026 USD could be saved in the health care system per each person. 

Application of flexible ureteroscopy combined with holmium laser lithotripsy and their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of upper urinary stones in children and infants

Junhua Li, Huiqin Yu, Peng Zhou, Huixian Pan, Ruipeng Li, Yanbin Wang, Chen Song, Yangfeng Lou, Jingyu Zhu

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 343-346
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4640

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for the treatment of pediatric patients.

Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients with upper urinary stones treated using flexible ureteroscopy combined with holmium laser lithotripsy at our department between June 2015 and January 2017 were examined in this study.

Results: The operative success rate of treatment using holmium laser lithotripsy via flexible ureteroscopy was 97.8% (44/45); one patient (1/45, 2.2%) was converted to laparoscopic pyelolithotomy, and the calculus was successfully removed. Lithotripsy via flexible ureteroscopy was successful during the first phase in 38 patients (38/45, 84.4%), and second or third phase lithotripsy was needed for six patients (6/45, 13.3%). Intraoperative ureteral fracture in the middle and lower sections occurred in one pediatric patient who was converted to laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and ureter bladder reimplantation. This patient was discharged after recovery at 2 weeks postoperative and showed no significant renal dysfunction over the 12-month follow-up period. Severe postoperative gross hematuria occurred in one patient, who improved after hemostasis and other symptomatic treatments. High fever occurred in two patients (body temperature >39°C), who later improved. These pediatric patients were discharged after active anti-infection and other conservative treatments for 4 days. All of the included patients were followed up for 2-15 months, with an average follow-up period of 8 months. The total calculus clearance rate was 100% (45/45), with no recurrence of the calculus.

Conclusion: In this study, most upper urinary stones in children and infants were treated successfully with holmium laser lithotripsy applied via flexible ureteroscopy.

ORIGINAL PAPER(UROLOGICAL ONCOLOGY)


Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the value of quantitative analysis of ultrasound real-time tissue diffusion elastography in the diagnosis of benign and malignant prostate lesions.

Materials and Methods: From March 2010 to June 2013, 52 patients suspected with prostate cancer based on laboratory or clinical test results and underwent prostate biopsy in our hospital were enrolled into this study. The age of these patients ranged between 45-82 years, with an average age of 67.2 ± 6.8 years. All patients underwent transrectal real-time ultrasound elastography (TRTE) before biopsy. A total of 63 prostate nodules were detected, and the 11 elastic characteristic quantities of these nodules were quantitatively analyzed via tissue diffusion quantitative analysis. The results of ultrasonography were compared with the results of operation and pathology.

Result: Among these 11 characteristic quantities, which include the mean (MEAN) and standard deviation (SD), blue area ratio (AREA%), complexity (COMP), kurtosis (KURT), skewness (SKEW), contrast (CONT), equality (ENT), entropy (IDM), consistency (ASM) and correlation (CORR), except for COMP and CORR, the differences in other nine characteristic quantities between benign and malignant prostatic nodules were statistically significant (P<0.05). Among these, the AREA% and MEAN had the highest correlation, which were 0.791 and -0.791, respectively. The Youden’s index (sensitivity and specificity) of AREA% in the ROC curves was the highest, the cutoff value was 80.65% for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, sensitivity was 87.9%, and specificity was 96.6%.

Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of ultrasound real-time tissue diffusion elastography is helpful in the diagnosis of benign and malignant prostate lesions, provides a relatively accurate evaluation method in clinical practice, and has broad application prospects.

Human Papilloma Virus DNA in Tumor Tissue and Urine in Different Stage of Bladder Cancer

Babak Javanmard, Mohammad Reza Barghi, Davar Amani, Morteza Fallah Karkan, Mohammad Mohsen Mazloomfard

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 352-356
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4181

Purpose: There are some previous reports on the relationship between pathological grades and HPV detection. To determine the Human Papilloma Virus(HPV)  DNA in Tumor Tissue and Urine in Different Stage of Bladder Cancer conducted this study.

Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect general HPV and HPV16 and 18 subtypes in 110 bladder tumor tissue and urine specimens of patients with TCC of bladder between January 2014 to May 2016 that underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Exclusion criteria were genital wart and cases with immunosupression.

Results: Mean age of 110 patients was 61.6±10 years and fourteen (12.7%) of patients were female. PCR for general HPV primer in bladder tumor tissue was positive in 3 (9.4%), 22 (38.6%) and 15 (71.4%) of Ta, T1 and T2 bladder tumors, respectively (p<0.001). PCR for HPV16 in bladder tumor tissue was positive in 2(6.3%), 10 (17.5%) and 13 (61.9%) and PCR for HPV18 in bladder tumor tissue was positive in 1 (3.1%), 14 (24.6%) and 12 (57.1%) of Ta, T1 and T2 bladder tumors, respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001). Thirty seven (33.6%) of urine specimens were positive for general HPV using PCR and HPV16 and 18 subtypes were positive in 17 (15.5%) and 14 (12.7%) of urine specimens, respectively.

Conclusion: HPV infection may be associated with higher stages and grades of bladder carcinomas. Urine sampling for HPV detection is is as reliable as tumor tissue sample which could be considered for prognostic and follow up implications.

Purpose: In the present study, we evaluate the biopsy results, complications due to biopsy, and the correlation with the final pathology specimen of 19 patients who had surgery for their small renal masses.

Materials and Methods: A total of 19 patients (11 male, 8 female) underwent percutaneous biopsy of their renal mass under ultrasound guidance. All patients subsequently underwent extirpative surgery. Preoperative biopsy results were compared with postoperative specimens in terms of tru-cut and fine needle aspiration biopsies’ histopathological accuracy and the complications noted.

Results: Average age was 56(±10.5) and tumor size was 37(±10.6) mm. Six patients had only fine needle, 4 patients had only tru-cut, and 9 patients had both fine needle and tru-cut biopsies.  Malignancy was reported in 14,  and benign results in 5 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV’s were 64%, 100%, 100%, 33% respectively for FNAB. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV’s were all 100% for tru-cut core biopsy. Two perirenal hematoma was detected which resolved spontaneously under conservative therapy. In 11 patients there were adhesions due to biopsy, which caused difficulty of dissection during the operation.

Conclusion: In this relatively small serie, percutenous ultrasound guided biopsy to determine the histology of small renal masses achieved a high diagnostic accuracy. FNAB alone has a low diagnostic accuracy with false negative results when compared. However, tru-cut core biopsy has a diagnostic accuracy of %100. Therefore we recommend tru-cut biopsy when histopathological diagnosis is required for small renal masses. Adhesions due to biopsy may cause difficulties during dissection.

ORIGINAL PAPER (PEDIATRIC UROLOGY)


Purpose: To compare the efficacy of two bulking agents, Dextranomer-Hyaluronic Acid (DxHA) and Polyacrylate-Polyalcohol Copolymer (PPC) used for endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).

Materials and Methods: We endoscopically treated 125 patients (89 girls and 36 boys) diagnosed with VUR grades I-V, comprising a total of 174 refluxing ureters (RUs). Patients were categorized into two groups, 99 (56,9%) RUs were treated with DxHA (Group 1) and 75 (43,1%) RUs with PPC (Group 2). RUs treated with both bulking agents were excluded. The success of treatment was evaluated with postoperative VCUG at 3- and 12-months after the endoscopic procedure, only complete resolution of VUR was considered as treatment success. Data was collected and analyzed retrospectively. Statistical calculations were performed using the Chi-square test.

Results: After a single injection 80,0% (60/75) and 68,7% (68/99 RUs) of RUs resolved completely when treated with PPC and DxHA, respectively (P = .094). A second injection of PPC healed another 10 RUs (total 93,3%), whereas DxHA resolved additional 16 RUs (total 84,8%) (P = .097). A third injection was needed for 1 RU, treated with PPC and another 3 RUs with DxHA. Twelve months post-operatively, we achieved a total resolution rate of 94,7% (71/75 RUs) with PPC, while DxHA successfully treated 87,9% (87/99) of RUs (P = .125).

Conclusions: DxHA and PPC showed no statistically significant differences neither in the number of injections needed nor in the total success rate after 12 months of follow-up.

ORIGINAL PAPER (KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION)


Predictors of Self-Management among Kidney Transplant Recipients

Somayeh Khezerloo, Hosein Mahmoudi, Hamid Sharif Nia, Zohreh Vafadar

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 366-370
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.5061

Purpose: Self-management among kidney transplant recipients is a key factor in long-term survival. The present study aims to determine the predictors of self-management among kidney transplant recipients in Iran.

Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 360 kidney transplant recipients who were selected from six transplantation clinics affiliated to six major universities of medical sciences in Iran. The data were collected using a demographic and clinical characteristics questionnaire and the Persian version of the 24-item Self-Management Scale for Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Results: The mean score of the participants’ self-management was 62.39±8.04. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the significant predictors of self-management among kidney transplant recipients were age (B = –0.319), gender (B = –1.70), pre-transplantation dialysis duration (B = 0.256), dialysis type (B = 3.060), duration after transplantation (B = 0.08), and marital status (B = 4.44) (R2 = 0.444).

Conclusion: This study showed that kidney transplant recipients in Iran have a moderate self-management status. The significant predictors of their self-management were age, gender, marital status, pre-transplantation dialysis type and duration, and the length of time passed after transplantation. The findings of this study provide a basis for developing interventions to improve self-management among kidney transplant recipients.

ORIGINAL PAPER (FEMALE UROLOGY)


Relationship between oxidative stress and detrussor overactivity: a case control study

Murat Keske, Bahri Gok, Kemal Ener, Muhammet Fuat Ozcan, Asim Ozayar, Emrah Okulu, Salim Neselioglu, Serdar Cakmak, Erem Asil, Mustafa Aldemir, Ozcan Erel

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 371-374
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.5090

Purpose: We analyzed the role of oxidative stress in detrusor overactivity (DO) by measuring serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), binding capacity of exogenous cobalt to human albumin (IMA), serum advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), paraoxonase (PON), and arylesterase.

Materials and Methods: The study included 38 female patients diagnosed with DO and 29 healthy female subjects forming the control group. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), binding capacity of exogenous cobalt to human albumin (IMA), serum advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), paraoxonase (PON), and arylesterase were analyzed. The results of serum TAC, TOS, IMA, AOPP, PON, and arylesterase of the subjects in both groups were compared.

Results: There was no difference between the groups in terms of age. When compared to the control group, serum TAC and IMA levels were statisticaly lower (P  < 0,001)  and higher (P = 0,003), respectively. However, TOS, AOPP, PON, arylesterase levels were similar in both groups ( p > 0.05 ).

Conclusion: There seems to be an association between DO and oxidative damage according to our results, this can be measured by analyzing TAC and IMA in this patient group.

ORIGINAL PAPER (ANDROLOGY)


Effects of Opium Dependency on Testicular Tissue in a Rat Model: An Experimental Study

Hassan Jamshidian, Erfan Amini, Mohsen Karvar, Elnaz Ayati, Mohsen Ayati, Farhad Pishgar, Mansoor Jamali Zavarehei, Farid Azmoudeh Ardalan, Zahra Khazaeipour, Saeid Amanpour, Seyed Majid Aghamiri

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 375-379
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4066

Purpose: This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of opium dependency on testicular tissue in a rat model.

Methods: Thirty-two Wistar male rats (aged 30 days and weighing 200-250 grams) were randomized into two groups. Group A, consisting of 16 rats, received dissolved oral opium tablets in drinking water for 45 days, whereas group B (control group) consisted of 16 rats that received opium-free water. After 45 days vertical and horizontal diameters of testis, number of seminiferous tubules, mean seminiferous tubule diameter, number of germ cells, height of germinal epithelium, percentage of degenerating Leydig and germ cells and glutathione density of testicular tissue (µmol/g of tissue) were compared between study groups.

Results: Morphological evaluation of testicular tissue revealed a significantly higher percentage of degenerating Leydig and germ cells in the treated group compared to control group. (10.08 ± 0.351 vs. 1.83 ± 0.88, 4.50 ± 0.769 vs. 0.607 ± 0.118, respectively) (P-value<0.001 for each) Interestingly, vertical and horizontal diameter of testis, the average number of germ cells, height of germinal epithelium and number of seminiferous tubules, were significantly higher in the treated group compared to control group. Seminiferous tubule diameter and glutathione density of testicular tissue were not statistically significantly different between the groups.

Conclusions: Applying a rat model, we noted that opium has a substantial effect on testicular structure and function. A significantly higher proportion of Leydig and germ cells were degenerated in treated rats despite an increase in the average number of seminiferous tubules and germ cells. These findings support the hypothesis that opium consumption adversely affects male fertility.

The Possible Role of XRCC1 Gene Polymorphisms with Idiopathic Non-obstructive Azoospermia in Southeast Turkey

Halit Akbas, Mahmut Balkan, Mahir Binici, Abdullah Gedik

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 380-385
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4435

Purpose: X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) plays a role in repairing DNA damage during spermatogenesis. We examined the effects the possible role of two single nucleotide polymorphisms of XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln in DNA repair gene XRCC1 with risk of idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (INOA) in a south-east Turkey population.

Materials and Methods: The genotype and allele frequencies of two observed polymorphisms of XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln were examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 102 infertile men with INOA and 102 fertile controls.

Results: In our study, all the observed genotype frequencies are in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genotype frequencies of the XRCC Arg194Trp were 84% (CC), 16% (CT) and 2% (TT) among the men with INOA, while the frequencies of those genotypes in the controls were found to be 88% (CC), 12% (CT) and 2% (TT) (?2 test: P < .05). Similarly, the genotypes frequencies of GG, GA, and AA of the XRCC1 Arg399Gln were 44%, 39%, and 19% in the group of men with INOA, whereas these frequencies were 42%, 45%, and 15% in the control group, respectively. No significant difference between the control group and the men with INOA were found in the frequencies of genotypes and allele of XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Neither Arg194Trp nor Arg399Gln polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene influenced risk of INOA in our study. However, these findings may be helpful in improving the understanding of the etiology of male infertility.

CASE REPORT


Primary Prostate Lymphoma Managed with Combined Modality Treatment: A Case Report

Anya Jafari, Bahram Mofid, Ali Tabibi, Farid Kowsari

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 412-414
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4294

Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies in men; the main reported pathology is adenocarcinoma while there are few published cases of prostate lymphoma. There isn’t enough data regarding the natural history and best management of prostate lymphoma. In this paper, we have described a case of prostate lymphoma that managed with combined modality treatment and have been survived for three years.

A 68-year-old man underwent ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of a suspicious renal mass. Just two weeks later, a large number of subcutaneous nodules was found in patient's chest-back, neck and axilla. pathology analysis was found to be metastatic subcutaneous nodules, These features suggest that tumor seeding have occurred during the needle biopsy. Despite needle tract seeding is a rare event, this rare complication should be taken into consideration before contemplating its use in a patient.

UNCLASSIFIED


Patient-reported Goal Achievement after Treating Male Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with Alpha-adrenergic Antagonist: A 12-week Prospective Multicenter Study

Bum Soo Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Ki Ho Kim, Byung Hoon Kim, Ji Yong Ha, Deok Hyun Cho, Gun Nam Kim, Yoon Hyung Lee, Jae Soo Kim, Hyun-Jin Jung, Hong Seok Shin, Phil Hyun Song, Jong Hyun Yoon, Jae Ho Kim, Eun Sang Yoo

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 386-391
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.3784

Purpose: The study was designed to assess and predict patient-reported goal achievement after treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with tamsulosin.

Materials and methods: From November 2013 to October 2015, 272 patients initially diagnosed with BPH were prospectively enrolled in nine different centers. Before the treatment, subjective final goals were recorded by all patients. Every four weeks, the treatment outcomes were evaluated using international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry, and adverse events were recorded. Patient-reported goal achievements were assessed after 12 weeks of treatment.

Results: Of the enrolled patients, 179 patients completed the study. The pretreatment patients’ goals included the frequency improvement, nocturia improvement, residual urine sense improvement, well voiding, hesitancy improvement, weak urine stream improvement, urgency improvement, and voiding-related discomfort improvement. Of the 179 patients, 129 patients (72.1%) reported that they achieved their primary goals after three months of medical therapy. Logistic regression analysis revealed that pretreatment quality of life (OR = 8.621, 95% CI: 2.154-9.834), and improvement of quality of life (OR = 6.740, 95% CI: 1.908-11.490) were independent predictors of patient-reported goal achievement after tamsulosin monotherapy.

Conclusion: Overall patient-reported goal achievement after medical therapy for BPH was high and the scores of pretreatment quality of life and improvement of quality of life can be important factors to predict the achievement of treatment goals.

Purpose: To observe the efficacy of intravenously injected oxycodone intraoperative on postoperative urinary catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD).

Materials and Methods: Patients with ASA I-III received trans-urethral resection prostate under general anesthesia were observed. Patients were randomized allocated to the group control (n = 45) received placebo and the group oxycodone (n =46 ) received 0.03mg/kg of oxycodone before the end of operative 10min. The incidence and severity (mild, moderate, severe) of CRBD were assessed at 0, 1/2 h, 2 h and 6 h postoperatively. VAS scores were used to assess pain intensity during the same period. Postoperative PCA analgesic sufentanil dose and the incidences of nausea, vomiting, dizziness, over sedation were recorded in these patients.

Results: Compared with the control group, the incidence of CRBD was significantly lower in the oxycodone group at 0 [22 (49 %) vs. 10 (22%); P = .007], 1/2h [18 (40%) vs. 9 (20%); P= .033], 2h [11 (24%) vs. 4 (9%); P = .001]. The severity of CRBD at 0 [mild, 9 (38%) ; moderate 9 (20%), severe 4 (9%)] was lower in the group Q than the controlled group [mild, 4 (38%) P ? .023; moderate 5 (11%), P ?.034, severe 1 (2%), P ? .012]. 1/2 h [mild, 11 (24%) Vs 5(11%), P ? .020]. Compared with the group C, VAS scores were lower in group Q at 0, 1/2h (P ? .001) and significantly decreased sufentanil dosage within 6h ( P= .001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of postoperative adverse effects between two groups.

Conclusion: Oxycodone can effectively prevent patients with CRBD after TURP without incurring serious adverse effects.

Purpose: We compared the efficacy and safety of a combined thulium laser incision and bipolar resection of prostate technique (web procedure) with traditional bipolar TURP.

Materials and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 96 web procedure, 93 traditional bipolar TURP patients between 2013 and 2016. The web procedure consisted of thulium laser incision of the prostate at 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 o’clock positions up to the resection plane and subsequent bipolar resection of the created prostate blocks.  Resected tissue weight, operative time, resection velocity, complications, blood loss, and early operative outcome were compared.

Results: No significant differences were noted among the web procedure (web group) and traditional bipolar TURP in preoperative PSA ( 6.3 vs 8.7 ng/mL, P =0.295), preoperative postvoid residual urine (55.1 vs 76.4, P =.056), modified hemoglobin decrease (defined as total Hb decrease divided by the weight of the resected tissue: 0.060 vs 0.051, p=.380), complication rate (5.2% vs 5.3 %, P =.958), hospitalization (4.0 vs 4.2 days, P =.120) and catheterization (2.5 vs 3.4, p=.066). The resection velocity was higher in the web group (0.23 vs 0.17 g/ min, p=.001). In subgroup analysis, the significant difference of resection velocity between two group was showed in large prostates (>40 g: 0.25 vs 0.20 g/min, P =0.02 ) but not in the small prostate group. There was no difference in postoperative postvoid residual urine (21.9 vs 30.3 P =.231) and postvoid residual urine decrease (33.1 vs 45.5, P = .167) 2 months after surgery.

Conclusion: The combination thulium laser incision and bipolar TURP technique had a higher resection efficiency and comparable efficacy and safety than traditional bipolar TURP.

The Association of Postvoiding Residual Volume, Uroflowmetry Parameters and Bladder Sensation

Hakki Uzun, Maksude Esra Kadioglu, Nurgul Orhan Metin, Gorkem Akca

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 403-406
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4368

Purpose: To investigate whether postvoiding residual bladder volume (PVR) and uroflowmetry parameters associate with bladder sensation in male patients with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and to find out the reliable time of these examinations.

Materials and Methods: Sixty men with bladder outlet obstruction underwent transabdominal ultrasound in order to measure postvoiding residual volume and uroflowmetry. At the first day, PVR was measured while the patients had mild bladder sensation. Patients emptied their bladder during uroflowmetry. The next day, same patients underwent a second uroflowmetry and PVR measurement while the patients had severe bladder sensation. The first and next day PVR and uroflowmetry parameters were compared and their correlation with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were analysed.

Results: The mean age of the subjects was 69.7 ± 8.6 years. PVR measured at the first day while patients had mild bladder sensation was significantly found lower than the next day PVR (mean ± SD: 80.79 ± 72.18 vs 158 ± 115.82, p<0.001) and correlated with LUTS (rs =0.38, p=0.012). In contrary, uroflowmetry parameters at severe sensation of bladder (mean ± SD: Qmax:13.53 ± 6.32; Qave:5.32 ± 2.31) showed correlation with LUTS (rs = -0.492, p= 0.001).

Conclusions: PVR measurement at mild bladder sensation correlates with LUTS and should be performed in the evaluation of male patients with BOO. However, uroflowmetry is advised to be performed when the patient has severe bladder sensation.

The Effect of Interfascial Injection on Obturator Nerve Block Compared with Nerve Stimulating Approach by Ultrasound-Guide: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Yong Beom Kim, Hee Yeon Park, Kyung Mi Kim, Hyeon Ju Shin, Su Bin Kim, Mi Geum Lee

Urology Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4 (2019), 18 August 2019 , Page 407-411
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4386

Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate whether the ultrasound-guided interfascial injection technique is really compatible with the ultrasound-guided nerve stimulating technique for obturator nerve block (ONB) at the inguinal crease after bifurcation of the obturator nerve.

Materials and Methods: A total 62 ONBs were performed for transurethral resection of bladder tumors under spinal anesthesia, and divided into two groups, that is, to an ultrasound-guided ONB with nerve stimulation control group (the US-NS group) or an ultrasound-guided interfascial injection experimental group (the US-IFI group). In the US-IFI group, complete ONB was confirmed using a nerve stimulator at 5 min after completing the injection, and if residual twitching remained, another local anesthetic was injected; in such cases blocks were considered to have ‘failed’. During TURB surgeries, two urology assistants determined obturator reflex grade (I-IV) at 15 min after injection completion in both groups.

Results: We assumed that the US-NS group achieved complete ONB in all cases. Six cases in the US-IFI group failed to achieve complete ONB (failure rate: 0% versus 19.4%, P = .012). There was one case of grade II obturator reflex in each group.

Conclusion: The ultrasound-guided interfascial injection technique was not compatible with the ultrasound-guided nerve stimulating technique for ONB at the inguinal crease.