The effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on emotional stability and alexithymia in female students
Social Determinants of Health,
Vol. 8 (2022),
Background: Mental disorders can cause many problems in students' academic performance and also severely affect their cognitive, emotional, moral and social development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on emotional stability and alexithymia in female second-grade high school students.
Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design. The statistical population included all girls’ second grade students of the second secondary school in District 8 of Tehran. The sample size consisted of 118 students who were selected by stratified random sampling and assigned to two groups of 59 people as experimental and control groups). Data collection tools were emotional adjustment measure (EAM), Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20), and the ACT protocol. Data analysis was done using SPSS V.21 and multivariate analysis of covariance, and significance level was considered ≤ 0.05.
Results: The findings showed that after adjusting the pre-test scores, ACT in the post-test has a significant effect on the Lack of regulation of emotional and physiological arousals, and despair and wishful thinking with values (F=90.143, F=178.324 respectively, P<0.001). Also, after adjusting the pre-test scores, ACT in the post-test showed a significant effect on the difficulty in identifying feelings (P<0.001, F=91.278), difficulty in describing feelings (P<0.001, F=189.328), and externally-oriented thinking (P<0.001, F=165.544).
Conclusion: Based on the results, ACT training had a positive influence on emotional stability and alexithymia of high school students; the implementation of this protocol in schools and counseling centers is recommended.
- Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
- Affective Symptoms
How to Cite
Bas G. Relation between Student Mental Health and Academic Achievement Revisited: A Meta-Analysis. Health and Academic Achievement-New Findings: IntechOpen; 2021.
Agnafors S, Barmark M, Sydsjö G. Mental health and academic performance: a study on selection and causation effects from childhood to early adulthood. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. 2021;56(5):857-66.
Ravens-Sieberer U, Wille N, Erhart M, Bettge S, Wittchen H-U, Rothenberger A, et al. Prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents in Germany: results of the BELLA study within the National Health Interview and Examination Survey. European child & adolescent psychiatry. 2008;17(1):22-33.
Chacón-Cuberos R, Martínez-Martínez A, García-Garnica M, Pistón-Rodríguez MD, Expósito-López J. The relationship between emotional regulation and school burnout: Structural equation model according to dedication to tutoring. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019;16(23):4703.
Ghorbani-Marghmaleki F, Mohebbi-Dehnavi Z, Beigi M. Investigating the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and the health of pregnant women. Journal of education and health promotion. 2019;8.
Domaradzka E, Fajkowska M. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies in anxiety and depression understood as types of personality. Frontiers in psychology. 2018;9:856.
Nyarko F, Peltonen K, Kangaslampi S, Punamäki R-L. Emotional intelligence and cognitive skills protecting mental health from stress and violence among Ghanaian youth. Heliyon. 2020;6(5):e03878.
Schneiderman N, Ironson G, Siegel SD. Stress and health: psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2005;1:607-28.
Cisler JM, Olatunji BO, Feldner MT, Forsyth JP. Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: An integrative review. Journal of psychopathology and behavioral assessment. 2010;32(1):68-82.
Farmer AS, Kashdan TB. Affective and self-esteem instability in the daily lives of people with generalized social anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychological Science. 2014;2(2):187-201.
Mikaeili N, Molavi P, Einy S, Tagavy R. Effectiveness of Emotion Focused Therapy on Emotional Dysregulation, Hopelessness and Suicidal Ideation in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Veterans. Iranian Journal of War and Public Health. 2017;9(3):111-7.
Serafini G, Gonda X, Canepa G, Pompili M, Rihmer Z, Amore M, et al. Extreme sensory processing patterns show a complex association with depression, and impulsivity, alexithymia, and hopelessness. Journal of affective disorders. 2017;210:249-57.
Kiani A, Ghasemi N, Pourabbas A. The Comparsion of the Efficacy of Group Psychotherapy Based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Mindfulness on Craving and Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Methamphetamine Addicts. Research on Addiction. 2013;6(24):27-36.
Zhang H, Fan Q, Sun Y, Qiu J, Song L. A study of the characteristics of alexithymia and emotion regulation in patients with depression. Shanghai archives of psychiatry. 2017;29(2):95.
Esmaeili L, amiri s, Reza Abedi M, Molavi H. The Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Focused on Self -Compassion on Social Anxiety of Adolescent Girls. Clinical Psychology Studies. 2018;8(30):117-37.
Nikkhah S, Behboodi M, Vakili P. The comparison of the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and imagotherapy on the resilience of married women referring to consulting centers in the city of Tehran. The Journal Of Psychological Science. 2019;18(77):597-607.
Kanter JW, Baruch DE, Gaynor ST. Acceptance and commitment therapy and behavioral activation for the treatment of depression: Description and comparison. The Behavior Analyst. 2006;29(2):161-85.
Pistorello J, Hayes SC, Lillis J, Long DM, Christodoulou V, Lejeune J, et al. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in classroom settings. 2013.
Twohig MP, Hayes SC, Masuda A. Increasing willingness to experience obsessions: Acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavior therapy. 2006;37(1):3-13.
Tilaki M, Taher M, Mojarrad A, Jafari Sani B. Efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy on psychological flexibility and alexithymia of women with chronic pain. Journal of Psychological Studies. 2018;14(3):163-78.
Baseri LD, Bozorgi ZD. Effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment on cognitive emotion regulation and alexithymia of patients with type 2 diabetes. Iran J Psychiat Nurs. 2017;5(1):7-14.
Rubio VJ, Aguado D, Hontangas PM, Hernández JM. Psychometric properties of an emotional adjustment measure: An application of the graded response model. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2007;23(1):39-46.
Shokri O, Sanaeepur M, Royaei Z, Gharetappeyei Z. Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Adjustment Measure among Iranian Students. Quarterly of Educational Measurement. 2016;6(23):77-97.
Bagby RM, Taylor GJ, Parker JD. The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale—II. Convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Journal of psychosomatic research. 1994;38(1):33-40.
Palmer BR, Gignac G, Manocha R, Stough C. A psychometric evaluation of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso emotional intelligence test version 2.0. Intelligence. 2005;33(3):285-305.
Besharat M. The Relationship between Alexithymia with Anxiety, Depression, Psychological helplessness and Psychological Well-Being. Quarterly of Tabriz University. 2008;3(10):25-46.
Besharat MA. Reliability and factorial validity of a Farsi version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale with a sample of Iranian students. Psychological reports. 2007;101(1):209-20.
Hayes S, Strosahl K, Wilson K. Acceptance and com mit ment therapy: An experiential approach to beha vi our change. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1999.
Kamali S, Kianrad N. ACT in practice: Case conceptualization in acceptance and commitment therapy. Tehran: Arjemand Publications; 2017.
Narimani M, Abbasi M, Abolghasemi A, Ahadi B. A study comparing the effectiveness of acceptance/commitment by emotional regulation training on adjustment in students with dyscalculia. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2013;2(4):154-76.
Mohammadi L, Salehzade Abarghoei M, Nasirian M. Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on cognitive emotion regulation in men under methadone treatment. SSU_Journals. 2015;23(9):853-61.
Kiani A, Ghasemi N, Pourabbas A. The comparsion of the efficacy of group psychotherapy based on acceptance and commitment therapy, and mindfulness on craving and cognitive emotion regulation in methamphetamine addicts. Scientific Quarterly Research on Addiction. 2013;6(24):27-36.
Blackledge JT, Hayes SC. Emotion regulation in acceptance and commitment therapy. Journal of clinical psychology. 2001;57(2):243-55.
Hosseini M, Azimi D, Abbasi M, Dargahi S. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Training on Emotional Control of Chemical Veterans. Iranian Journal of War and Public Health. 2018;10(1):9-13.
Zhang C-Q, Leeming E, Smith P, Chung P-K, Hagger MS, Hayes SC. Acceptance and commitment therapy for health behavior change: a contextually-driven approach. Frontiers in psychology. 2018;8:2350.
Abbasi M, Bagyan MJ, Dehghan H. Cognitive failure and alexithymia and predicting high–Risk behaviors of students with learning disabilities. International journal of high risk behaviors & addiction. 2014;3(2).
Wallace JC, Kass SJ, Stanny CJ. The cognitive failures questionnaire revisited: dimensions and correlates. The Journal of general psychology. 2002;129(3):238-56.
Barzegari Dehaj A. Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on emotion regulation and mood status in adolescents. Tehran: Allame Tabatabaee University; 2015.
Javadi THS, Masjedi MA, Hamzehloo E, Chehraghi MJ, Razavi L, Rahmani S, et al. Effectiveness of Group Therapy Based on Acceptance and Commitment on the Severity of Fatigue and Depression with the Moderating role of Alexithymia in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. International Clinical Neurosciences Journal. 2021;8(1):37-43.
White R, Gumley A, McTaggart J, Rattrie L, McConville D, Cleare S, et al. A feasibility study of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for emotional dysfunction following psychosis. Behaviour research and therapy. 2011;49(12):901-7.
Simpson PA, Stroh LK. Gender differences: emotional expression and feelings of personal inauthenticity. Journal of Applied psychology. 2004;89(4):715.
Räty L, Gustafsson B. Emotions in relation to healthcare encounters affecting self-esteem. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 2006;38(1):42.
Rostami R, Dasht Bozorgi Z. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Resiliency and Alexithymia of Somatic Symptoms. Practice in Clinical Psychology. 2019;7(2):87-94.
Karimi S, Aghamir Mohammad Ali Z, Aboobakri Makoei S, VahidiFard M, Habibi M, AmooKhalili M. Effectiveness of Treatment Based on Acceptance and Commitment on Emotional Impairment and Cognitive Avoidance in Students with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Psychological Studies. 2021;16(4):109-26.
- Abstract Viewed: 39 times
- PDF Downloaded: 17 times