Original Article


Background: Modified radical mastectomy (MRM) is still one of globally accepted surgical techniques for breast cancer and in some selected patient is the gold standard type of surgery. The most frequent complication of this procedure is seroma under skin flaps or in the axilla as reported as much as 30% in some studies. The use of closed suction drainage system to reduce the incidence of this complication has been routinely accepted by surgeons; however, length of catheter stay and the number of catheters inserted in the wound are still controversial. The present study compares the results of single versus double drain insertion in patients undergoing MRM for breast cancer.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 women with breast cancer who were candidate for MRM surgery during 2007-2010 referred to Modarres hospital, Tehran, Iran as a randomized group matched controlled trial.
Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, BMI, and tumor weight (P=0.406) (Table 1). Similarly, the difference between the two groups was insignificant in tumor size (T) and number of lymph nodes involved (P=0.145). There was no significant difference between the two groups in timing of axillary drain removal (P=0.064). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in mean aspirated fluid (P=0.071) and mean aspirated sera (P=0.484) after removal of drains.
Conclusion: This study revealed one drain insertion in MRM surgery is as effective as two drain and probably less morbidity and cost.

Comparative Evaluation of Spectral Transmittance of Some Welding Glasses with ANSI Z87.1

saeed Rahmani, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Mohammadreza Nazari, Mohammad Ghassemi-Broumand

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2016), , Page 51-55
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v4i2.9707

Background: Welding emits harmful rays to the eyes. We evaluate and compare the UV, blue light and IR transmittance characteristics of some currently available welding safety protectors with ANSI Z87.1 criteria.
Materials and Methods: Three type of welding safety protectors (three of each type) have been evaluated for spectral transmittance. One-sample T-test was performed to establish is there a statistically significant difference between the standard criteria and UV, blue and IR regions for the welding protectors (α=0.05).
Results: In ultraviolet (UV) (far and near) region, two types of the tested protectors (P1, P2) transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001). In infrared (IR) spectrum only one type (P3) transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001). In blue light region, all of the tested protectors transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Although all of the tested glasses could meet some parts of the criteria, but none of them could meet the complete spectral transmittance requirements of ANSI Z87.1.

Background: Before the year 1950 treatment of myocardial Infarction patients was complete bed rest for several weeks and reduces physical activity for several months. Cardiac rehabilitation based on exercise training reduces the effects of deconditioning of bed rest. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the methods and means of prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

Materials and Methods: This study was designed clinical trial and cross sectional study before and after intervention, the effect of our new protocol was assessed according to method of Bruce stress test. Measurement consisted of Blood Pressure and Functional Capacity, which were recorded and compared before and after intervention.

Results: There was a significant increase in functional capacity according to method of Bruce stress test after ten session of training. The criterion deviation at functional capacity variable was 13.19±2.242 METS and 24.42±6.00 METS before and after 10 sessions. Respectively, this obtained METS (body oxygen survey at rest state equal to 3/5 milliliter oxygen to each kg person weight at minute) rise amount from secondary posttest to primary test (P<0.05). There was also a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure after ten session of training. The criterion deviation and average was 121.5±8.83 and 112.00±9.18 for systolic blood pressure. This decline amounts has a meaningful variable amount given P value <0.05.

Conclusion: Cardiac rehabilitation can increase the performance of blood circulation and uptake of oxygen in body. These changes showed a significant increase in functional capacity it can also reduce resistance of blood circulation and showed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure.

Evaluation of Hepatitis B Infection Prevalence in Institutionalized Intellectually Disabled Children

Foad Davoodbeglou, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Hossein Goudarzi, Fariba Shojaei, Hourieh Aram, Maryam Vaezjalali

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2016), , Page 61-66
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v4i2.8297

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes chronic infection in human population, with high mortality. One of the high risk communities is mentally retarded children, who are institutionalized. Special conditions in these centers predispose children for HBV infection and transmission to healthy people. In this study our objective was to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among institutionalized mentally retarded children and study its associated risk factors.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 250 mentally retarded children (younger than 14 years old) were included. They were living in 5 nursing institutions, located in different parts of Tehran. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was measured in the sera of these patients by ELISA method.

Results: Among 250 children, 20 children (8%) were HBsAg positive. HBV infection in girls was more than boys (11% to 5.6%). Among the types of mental retardation, children with cerebral palsy had the highest positive result for HBsAg. The most HBV infection (28.5%) was seen in children with longest duration of being institutionalized (10 to 11 years). Vaccinated children were more HBsAg positive (8.7%) than non-vaccinated children (5.3%). However, no significant relationship was observed between any of these factors and HBsAg positivity.

Conclusion: Despite improvement of people’s health condition and implementation of HBV vaccination, the prevalence of HBV infection is increased in institutionalized mentally retarded children, which highlights the need for active measures to reduce this infection among this high risk population

Short Communication


Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.

Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs) accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positive, which HBS antibody titer of them was higher than 10 mlu/ml, 6 HCWs were exposed to HCV seropositive patients underwent laboratory investigations for  HCV-antibody on 4,12, 24 weeks that results were negative. 3 cases had exposure to HIV seropositive patients which received standard antiretroviral post exposure prophylaxis.

Conclusion: Timely performance for PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis) reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.

prophylaxis.

 Conclusions: Timely performance for  PEP(Post Exposure Prophylaxis) reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.

Key words: Outcome; Accidental Exposure; Blood Borne Viral Infections

Review Article


Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs)

Mehrzad Sadredinamin, Faramarz Mehrnejad, Peyman Hosseini, Farahnoosh Doustdar

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2016), , Page 70-76
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v4i2.9158

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.

These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

Chromosome Structural Alteration an Unusual Abnormality Characterizing Human Neoplasia

Abolfazl Movafagh, Mehrdad Hashemi, Atefeh Heidary Pour, Davood Zare-Abdollahi, Babak Emamalizadeh, Farhad Shahvaisizadeh, Neda Mansouri, Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Hassan Tonekaboni

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2016), , Page 77-83
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v4i2.11943

Background and Aim: Ring chromosomes are rare cytogenetic abnormalities that occur in less than 10% of hematopoietic malignancies. They are rare in blood disorder. The present review has focused on the ring chromosome associated with oncology malignancies.

Materials and Methods: By reviewing the web-based search for all English scientific peer review articles published, was initiated using Medline/PubMed, Mitelman database (http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Chromosomes/Mitelman), and other pertinent references on websites about ring chromosomes in Oncology. The software program as End Note was used to handle the proper references for instruction to author. Karyotype descriptions were cited according to ISCN.

Conclusion: Ring chromosomes are rare chromosomal aberrations, almost many times are of de novo origin, presenting a different phenotype regarding the loss of genetic material. The karyotype represents the main analysis for detection of ring chromosomes, but other molecular technics are necessary for complete characterization. The information of this review article adds to the spectrum of both morphology and genetic rearrangements in the field of oncology malignancies.

Case Report


Acute Meningitis on Account of Orbital Bone Fracture: A Case Report

Zahra Arab-Mazar, Shervin Shokouhi, Amirhossein Moghtader Mojhdehi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2016), , Page 84-86
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v4i2.8521

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a gram-positive pathogen bacteria which causes a variety of diseases, including otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis.

Cases Report: A 19-year-old man with paroxysm was admitted to emergency department of hospital. He was diagnosed with S. pneumoniae meningitis on the basis of an analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture.

Conclusion: We present a rare case of meningitis. The treatment was successful by just relying on the antibiogram test results. Vancomycin treatment was discontinued, and the patient fully recovered with Ceftriaxone