Original Article

The design of the constructs of cpsD and simA genes of Streptococcus iniae

Mohsen Rahmanian Kooshkaki, Mojgan Bandehpour, Bahram Kazemi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2014), 28 April 2014 , Page 1-5


Background & Objective: Streptococcosis is one of the bacterial infections in fish, especially rainbow trout which infects brain and nervous systems of fish and is caused by S. iniae. Estimation of the impact of disease prevalence by S. iniae in fish farming in some countries is reported about 100 million dollars per year. Some of the most effective proteins in pathogenicity of these bacteria are SimA and CpsD. In order to design new and effective vaccine, in this study cloning of two genes of Streptococcus was performed into pNZ8148 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli.

Materials and Methods: simA and cpsD genes were subcloned into pNZ8148 vector. Obtained constructs were transformed to expressing E. coli BL21 strain. After induction with nisin, SDS PAGE electrophoresis and Western blotting were used to confirm the procedures.

Results: Using PCR with specific and universal primers, the accuracy of cloning was confirmed. Final verification of expressed protein was carried out by SDS-PAGE and western blotting.

Conclusion: With regard to the obtained results, it seems that the generated gene construct in this study can be used as a vaccine against Streptococcosis in future researches.

Evaluation of Measles, Rubella, Mumps, Hepatitis B and Varicella Zoster Antibodies in Medical and Dental Students in Shiraz, Iran

Afagh Moattari, Ali Ghanbari Asad, Ardalan Mansouri, Mostafa Malehi Vaziri, Farshid Moradpour Shammami

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2014), 28 April 2014 , Page 6-9


Measles, rubella, mumps, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) cause infectious diseases that can be effectively prevented by vaccination. Vaccination of medical students is important, because they are more likely to become exposed and infected by these viruses. A total of 180 students, consisting of 90 women and 90 men, were serologically screened for measles, rubella and mumps, HBV and VZV antibodies. Their sera were examined for Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody against these viruses by using ELISA IgG kits. Total antibody against measles, rubella, mumps, HBV and VZV were 52%, 100%, 76%, 68% and 15% respectively. There was no significant difference in antibodies level according to gender.

The results of this study indicate vaccination is vital for medical student prior to hospital training.


Background: Recurrent lumbar disk herniation (RLDH) is one of the major causes of failure of standard discectomy. The optimal treatment method for RLDH is controversial. In the current study, we aimed to compare the clinical and functional outcomes of treating RLDH with discectomy alone and discectomy associated with posterolateral interbody fusion (PLIF).

Material and Methods: There were 41 patients with RLHD after primary discectomy in the current retrospective study. Patients were assigned to 2 groups based on the surgical method: discectomy alone (17 patients) and discectomy with PLIF (21 patients). At the final visit the following variables were measured and compared between groups: the back and radicular pain intensity using visual analogue scale (VAS), functional outcome using oswestry low back pain disability scale (ODI), return to previous work and complication. Patients were followed for 13.9±2.8 and 15±3 months in discectomy alone and discectomy with PLIF groups, retrospectively.

Results: Complete fusion was achieved in 24 patients of PLIF group. The back pain intensity was the same; however the radicular pain intensity was significantly lower in PLIF group (1.5±0.9 V.s 2.3±1; p=0.017). Also, the mean of ODI scale was the same. 82.3% of patients in discectomy group and 87.5% of patients in PLIF group returned to previous work and the difference was not significant. One patient in discectomy group and 2 patients in PLIF group developed temporary neurological deficit which disappeared after 3 months.

Conclusions: Although both discectomy alone and discectomy with PLIF were associated with favorable mid-term results in treating patients with RLDH, however, the authors recommend using discectomy with PLIF for lower radicular pain.

Detection of actA and InlB genes in Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from women with Spontaneous abortions

Gita Eslami, Roghayeh Samadi, Robabe Taherpanah, Arezo Taherpor, Neda Baseri

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2014), 28 April 2014 , Page 18-21



Background & Objective To assess the extent of L. monocytogenes in causation of human spontaneous abortions by isolation methods and PCR analysis for the presence of actA and InlB genes.

Methods : In this descriptive study, vaginal swabs were collected from 96 women with spontaneous abortions who referred to Tehran`s hospitals. The samples were cultured in to Listeria specific media (PALCAM agar). Then , the Listeria genus was verified by differentiation  biochemical tests, such as, haemolysis on Blood agar, Catalase and Oxidase reaction, motility at room temperature. PCR test was performed on all samples and detected the actA and InlB genes of L. monocytogenes.

Results : In culture, 7 of 96 samples were positive for L.monocytogenes.                                     in PCR technique, actA and InlB genes were detected from 12 and 2 vaginal samples,  respectively.

Conclusions : The occurrence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes in cases of spontaneous abortions was 12.5%. It seems that the actA and InlB genes have an important roles as essential virulences determinant in pathogenic L.monocytogenes. The results show the PCR method is more sensitive, easier and faster than culture to detect L.monocytogenes.

Key word : Listeria monocytogenes , spontaneous abortions , actA gene , InlB gene

Review Article

Probiotics: an update on mechanisms of action and clinical applications

Mehdi Goudarzi, Hossein Goudarzi, Marjan Rashidan

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2014), 28 April 2014 , Page 22-30

Probiotics are live microbial feed supplement and can provide health benefit to the host if administered in sufficient amounts. The most predominant species that have been used as probiotic include Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Proper administration of probiotics could be efficient in the treatment of various disorders. However; their mechanism of action is poorly understood. The effects of probiotics may be classified in following modes: reinforcement of the intestinal mucosal barrier against pathogens, competition with pathogens for adherence to the mucosa and epithelium, competitive exclusion of pathogenic microorganisms, production of antimicrobial substances, modulation of the immune system and interference with quorum sensing signaling. Exploration of the clinical features of probiotic strains, their modes of action and investigation based on probiotic therapy may be beneficial in treatment of various diseases.

Case Report

Breast ductal carcinoma metastasis to jaw bones: a case report

Mahmood Reza AshabYamin, Abdoljalil Kalantarhormozi, Fariba Hamdamjo, Zahra Razi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2014), 28 April 2014 , Page 31-35


Malignant tumors of the oral cavity which are metastatic are very rare and consist of 1% of malignancies of the oral cavity. Numbness or paresthesia of the lower lip or the chin is the main feature of presence of metastasis in the jaw. Our patient was a 38 year old woman with chief complaint of pain in the right half of her face, jaw and teeth. Her medical history revealed a radical mastectomy with lymphadenectomy in the left breast because of invasive ductal carcinoma grade II/III and stage IIIA (T2N2M0) without distant metastasis, followed by chemotherapy (before and after the surgery) and radiotherapy two years ago. Following complementary examinations a malignant bone lesion in particular osteosarcoma was suspected. According to this evidence, possibility of early diagnosis of malignant tumors is very important for dentists and maxillofacial surgeons. Symptoms such as paresthesia of the lip and chin is very helpful in differential diagnosis of metastatic lesions from other similar clinical cases especially in patients with history of malignancies which minimize surgical and mental injuries and increase life expectancy of patients.