Original Article

Background: In this study, the antibacterial effect of the methanolic fraction of Nepeta depauperata against 50 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from burn wound infections of patients who referred to Shahid Motahari hospital of Tehran in 2014 was evaluated.

Materials and Methods: All bacterial isolates were confirmed by standard bacteriologic methods. Their resistant to common antibiotics were evaluated by disk diffusion method based on CLSI 2014. The Nepeta depauperata aerial parts were collected from Hormozgan Province and identified. Methanolic extract was prepared by maceration method using percolator apparatus and concentrated by rotary evaporator. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extract were determined by two methods; cup plate diffusion agar for determination the zone diameter of inhibition and microdilution broth for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and further minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC). Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software version 20.

Results: The percentage of resistance and susceptibility against nine different kinds of common antibiotic disk showed 83% resistance on average as evaluated by agar disk diffusion (Kirby–Bauer antibiotic test). Also, the mean of inhibition zone diameters has been measured in concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 mg/ml as follow: 12.58, 11.3 and 9.44 mm, respectively by cup plate and the amount of 87.93 and 104.78 mg/ml for MIC and MBC were determined, respectively, using the broth microdilution method. Statistic analysis was done with SPSS verssion19 software.

Conclusion: According to the satisfying results of the antibacterial effect of the testing methanolic extract against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa isolates further in vitro and in vivo studies are recommended.

Background: Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. Humans’ infection occurred by incidental ingestion of eggs shed in feces of dogs or cats. Studies on general population are rare in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated seroprevalence, and risk factors associated with toxocariasis among the healthy individuals in Tehran, capital if Iran.

Materials and Methods: In total, 374 sera samples were investigated for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG. We applied ELISA as screening test using available commercial kit. In addition, demographic data were obtained from participant’s questionnaires. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16.

Results: The overall seroprevalence of toxocariasis was found 5.6% (21/374). Regarding the socio-demographic variables, age (P<0.001) and eating unwashed vegetables (P=0.049) were significantly associated to toxocariasis in univariate analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, only age (P<0.001) was identified as potential risk factor associated with Toxocara infection.

Conclusion: This study revealed that seroprevalence of toxocariasis is relatively low in the healthy individuals in Tehran. We suggest carrying out further studies in the different part of Iran and investigate on the prevalence of toxocariasis in high-risk groups such as asthma, hyper-eosinophilic, epilepsy, rheumatism and schizophrenia patients.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can bind to the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of messenger RNAs, where they interfere with translation and thereby regulate cell differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Genetic polymorphisms in the 3'-UTRs targeted by miRNAs alter the strength of miRNA binding in a manner that affects the behavior of individual miRNAs. The histone methyltransferase SET8 has been reported to be a regulator of Tumor Protein 53 (TP53) methylation, a tumor suppressor gene, and regulate genomic stability. Furthermore, an association between the TP53 and Prostate Cancer has been reported in several studies. The present study aimed to evaluate whether (rs16917496) polymorphism at the miR-502 binding site in the 3' untranslated region of the histone methyltransferase SET8 is associated with the expression of this gene in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) patients.

Materials and Methods: We examined whether an rs16917496 polymorphism is associated with the risk of PCa and BPH in the Iranian population. This case-control study included 40 patients with pathologically confirmed PCa, 59 patients with BPH, and 45 controls. The rs16917496 polymorphism was determined using a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

Results: We found significant association of rs16917496 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The most frequent genotype in the control, prostate cancer, and BPH groups were TT, TC, and CC, respectively.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the heterozygote genotype of the SET8 polymorphism in the mir-502 gene could be considered a risk factor for the emergence of prostate cancer.

Prevalence of Catheter-associated bacteriuria in patients who received short-term catheterization in the northeast of Iran

Azad Khaledi, Amin Hooshyar Chichaklu, Ahmad Piroozmand, Maryam Meskini, Kiarash Ghazvini

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 6 No. 2 (2018), , Page 79-84

Background: Catheter-associated (CA) bacteriuria is a result of the extensive usage of urinary catheterization. Once a catheter is placed, many patients achieve bacteriuria, even with the use of greatest consideration and care of the catheter. In this study, we decided to evaluate the prevalence of Catheter-associated bacteriuria in patients who received short-term catheterization in the northeast of Iran.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study during one year (among 2014-2015) 275 patients who have admitted recently and have no history of catheterization and drug consumption were included. Three samples were taken from patients before, one day after catheterization and after removal of the catheter. The urine samples were analyzed and cultured on the suitable media. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method. Then, data analyzed using SPSS software by Student t-test. In addition, the p values less than 0.05 were considered as significant.

Results: In general, the rate of catheter-associated bacteriuria in these hospitals was 68% (187 cases of 275). The mean age of the participants and patients with bacteriuria were 41±1.2 and 24.8±6.2 years old, respectively. The most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (50.6%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia (21.6%). The highest sensitivity was reported against kanamycin (68.9%) and highest resistance was observed against ampicillin with a rate of 96.3%.

Conclusion: For prevention of healthcare-associated UTI, correct catheterization and use of the closed catheter system is recommended. In addition, before prescribing any antibiotics it should be paying attention to the antibiotics susceptibility testing results.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events, including abuse and neglect. The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) occurring during childhood or adolescence; may lead to a wide range of physical and psychological health issues throughout a person’s lifespan. Children with ACEs, develops poor relation skills and low self-esteem, which may increase the likelihood of interpersonal problems and physical aggression in adult life. The current study examined the correlation among adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), self-esteem, and aggressive behavior.

Materials and Methods: The sample included 350 adult male clients, accused of physical aggression in forensic setting. All participants completed interviews, focusing on different types of maltreatment prior to age 18, using the modified standardized Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questioner (ACE-IQ) and self-esteem level by Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale.

Results: The most commonly reported adverse experience was family dysfunction, mainly violence in the family that caused problems. Strong correlations were shown to exist between various ACEs and aggressive behavior. Negative correlation detected between self–esteem and all categories subjected for ACE except sexual abuse and community violence (P=0>.05).

Conclusion: Much attention has been focused on adverse childhood experiences as risk factors for a spectrum of violence-related outcomes during adulthood.

Adopting Clinical Guidelines for Admission Criteria of Intensive Care Unit: A Measure to Manage Queues of Patients Waiting for This Section

Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh, Maryam Abolghazi, Ali Dabbagh, Bahman Malek, Homeira Yazdi-Nezhad

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 6 No. 2 (2018), , Page 92-98

Background: Due to the need of patients to the intensive care unit (ICU) for receiving medical and nursing services, these services should be provided in a timely manner. This study aimed to develop the clinical guidelines for admission criteria of intensive care unit.

Materials and Methods: This study was observational type study was conducted for nine months in 2015 based on a three-step process of adoption of clinical guidelines including planning, adoption and finalization. After conducting systematic searches, the quality of retrieved clinical guidelines was evaluated by experts from policy makers in the admission of patients in the ICU. Finally, the ultimate version of the guideline was developed after reviewing and organizing expert panel sessions.

Results: The criteria for accepting patients were presented in form of seven clauses based on the neurological status, cardiovascular status, respiratory status, water and electrolyte disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, endocrine disorders, surgery and postoperative care.

Conclusion: One of the most important factors of creating demand inducing to the patients is the lack of clinical guidelines. It is recommended that departmental doctors should apply the mentioned clinical guidelines in order to make the resources of the intensive care unit more effective.

Case Report

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress therapy on stress, depression and distress in patients with cancer.

Cases Report: In a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients (Aged 32-70 years, progression of their disease was at levels 1 to 3, high cycle education, and 3 months of chemotherapy, of which 40, were randomly available from this group (20 experimental and 20 Control group). The instrument was a McGill Pain Questionnaire (1997) and the Hazards and Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using two methods of Kolmogorov-Smirnov inferential statistics and multivariate analysis of covariance using software software Spss17.

Conclusion: Correlation analysis showed that the experimental group had a significant reduction in depression and anxiety in the posttest after the control group compared with the control group. The short-term cognitive-behavioral stress management program can reduce, depression and anxiety in cancer patients.

Background: The aim of periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition for the whole life.

Cases Report: A 42 year old female with sever chronic periodontitis, treated medically and surgically, is reported. She initially received antibiotic, Scaling and root planning in addition to oral hygiene instruction. After four weeks, periodontal Surgery, root canal Therapy, extraction of excess tooth and restoration of some teeth were performed, because of remaining residual pockets, and bone loss, flap Surgery and Access flap, with papilla preservation flap method, also modified Widmann flap, were done. After one month, favorable clinical improvement was obtained.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that high oral hygiene level in accompanied with Suitable medical and surgical treatment, enhanced the success of periodontal treatment outcomes even in sever disease.