Gender Difference in the Characteristics among Unintentional Methamphetamine Overdose Patients Referring to Poison Center-an Epidemiologic Survey
International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine,
Vol. 3 No. 3(Summer) (2013),
6 September 2013
Background: Despite a significant increase in the number of persons using Methamphetamine, limited data exist concerning demographic characteristics non-fatal meth ”Shisha” overdoses, seeking for treatment.
Methods: Gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics, drug use record and self-harm behaviors related to Methamphetamine “Shisha” overdose were examined among 263 patients (189males, 74 females) admitted to poison center, Loghman hospital.
Results: Of the 263 methamphetamine “Shisha” overdose included in this study, 189 (71.9%) were Male and 74 (28.1%) were female with mean of age of 34 years and standard deviation of 12.8. Male “Shisha” users were more likely to be married, middle school educated, and self-employed. History of drug abuse was positive in 73.5% mainly in male. “Shisha” was the main drug used by 24.6% male and 23.1% female subjects. Inhalation was main rout in 174 (66.2%) of cases.
Conclusion: There may be gender difference in the characteristics of participants with “Shisha” overdose. The findings suggest that interventional programs are necessary for specific risk reduction strategies.
How to Cite
United Nations Office on Drug and Crime Vienna, World Drug Report 2012, United Nation, New York.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: World Drug Report 2012. New York: United Nations.
Afshari R, Monzavi SM. Patient Management in Triage and Medical Toxicology Ward. Iran: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, NC; 1853313. 2008;252-254.
Jafari S, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Craib K, Baharlou S, Mathias R.A follow-up study of drug users in Southern Iran. Addict Res Theory. 2010;18:59-70.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Studies. (2009). Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Highlights-2007. National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services, DASIS Series: S-45, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 09-4360, Rockville, MD.
Izadi-Mood N. Demographic Factors, Duration of Hospitalization, Costs of Hospitalization, and Cause of Death in Patients Intoxicated with Amphetamines and Opioids, Journal of Isfahan Medical School. 2011;29(146):12-19.
Omidvar T, Sharifi V. Amphetamine psychosis and eye autoenucleation. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2012,46:71.
Saberi SM, Khodabandeh F, Kahani AR, Marashi SM. Delusional problems and mood instability in acute psychotic patients dependent to methamphetamine named "Shishe" among Iranian population. Addiction Research &Therapy. 2012;3:4-11.
Buxton JA, Dove NA. The burden and management of crystal meth use. Can Med Assoc J. 2008;178:1537-1539.
Darke S, Kaye S, McKetin R, Duflou J. Major physical and psychological harms of methamphetamine use.
UN Office on Drugs and Crime. World drug report 2011. http://www. humansecuritygateway.com/show Record. php? Record Id=35492 (accessed on July 5, 2011).
Degenhardt L, Dierker L, Chiu W. evaluating the drug use “gateway” theory using cross-national data: consistency and associations of the order of initiation of drug use among participants in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;108:84–97.
HM GOVERNMENT. (2010): Drug strategy 2010: Reducing demand, restricting supply, building recovery: supporting people to live a drug free life. Last accessed 15 March 2012 at www.homeoffice.gov.uk.
Digiusto E., Treloar C. Equity of access to treatment, and barriers to treatment for illicit drug use in Australia. Addiction. 2007;102: 958-969.
Annual report on the state of the drugs problem in Europe; The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, November 2012.
Dezfouli A, Ekhtiari H, Mokri A. On the Measurement of Reinforcing Efficacy of Methamphetamine Using Self-Administration Procedures. Basic and clinical Neuroscience. 2010.
Alam-Mehrjerdi Z. Crystal in Iran: methamphetamine or heroin kerack. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;3(1):14-19.
Degenhardt L, White ford H, Hall W, Vos T. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to illicit drug use and mental disorders: what is “global burden of disease 2005” and why does it matter? (Invited review). Addiction. 2009;104:1466–71.
Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China: 2012 China AIDS Response ProgressReport.[http://www.aidsdatahub.org/dmdocuments/UNGASS_2012_China_Narrative_Report.pdf website].
Werb D, Kerr T, Lai C, Montaner J, Wood E. Non-fatal overdose among a cohort of street–involved youth, PMCID: PMC2290001,online 2007 December 26. doi: 10.1016/j. jado health. 2007.09.021 NIHMSID: NIHMS41507.
UNODC. Amphetamines and ecstasy: 2008 Global ATS assessment. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2008.
Strang J, Babor T, Caulkins J, Fischer B, Foxcroft D, Humphreys K. Drug policy and the public good: evidence for effective interventions. Lancet. 2012;379:71–83.
Strathdee SA, Hallett TB, Bobrova N. HIV and risk environment for injecting drug users: the past, present, and future. Lancet. 2010; 376: 268–84.
Jennifer R. Havens. Individual and Network Factors Associated with Non-fatal Overdose among Rural Appalachian Drug Users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;115(1-2):107–112.
Mehta SH, Sudarshi D, Srikrishnan AK, Celentano DD, Vasudevan CK, Anand S, Kumar MS, Latkin C, Solomon S, Solomon SS. Factors associated with injection cessation, relapse and initiation in a community-based cohort of injection drug users in Chennai, India. Addiction. 2012;107(2):349-58.
Peter C. Brittona,b, James D. Wines J, Kenneth R. Conner b. Non-fatal overdose in the 12 months following treatment for substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;107(1):51-58.
Mohammad KA, Hassan S, Dariush B. Crack in Iran: Is it Really Cocaine? J Addict Res Ther. 2011;2:107-120.
Latkin C, Friedman S. Drug use research: drug users as subjects or agents of change. Subst Use Misuse. 2012 Apr;47(5):598-9.
Latkin CA, Yang C, Tobin KE, German D. Injection drug users' and their risk networks' experiences of and attitudes towards drug dealer violence in Baltimore, Maryland. Int J Drug Policy. 2012;4(2):13-19.
- Abstract Viewed: 246 times
- PDF Downloaded: 333 times