Gender Identity Disorders in Iran; Request for Sex Reassignment Surgery
International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine,
Vol. 2 No. 4(Autumn) (2012),
21 March 2013
Background: Based on reports of the Tehran Legal Medicine Organization (LMO), requests for sex change operation by persons with Gender identity disorder (GID) have increased in the past few years in Iran. Due to the social and legal ramification of transsexualism, we decided to perform a study to assess the demographic status and legal aspects of Iranian Transsexuals who were applicants for sex reassignment surgery (SRS).
Method: The total number of 69 cases with GID who requested sex change by surgery was assessed during a period of four years (2005-2009) in Tehran. Descriptive statistical methods and Chi square were used to analyze the data.
Results: There were 44 male-to-female and 25 female-to-male Transsexuals with a mean age of 25 years. Out of 69 requests for sex change, transsexualism was confirmed in 61 cases and the remaining 8 cases had other Psychiatric disorders manifested by identity confusion. The onset of symptoms had developed in childhood (<10 y) in nearly 70% of patients. Depression was found in about 26% of cases. Eighteen cases (26%) had a history of suicide attempts. Among individuals with final diagnosis of Transsexualism, request of 93% was accepted for SRS.
Conclusion: This study showed dominancy in Male to Female Transsexuals (1.7/1). Depression was the most common psychiatric disorder associated with Transsexualism. The article also showed that recently transsexualism accepted by community and country low more than before.
- Gender Identity Disorder
- Changing Sex
How to Cite
Sohn M, Bosinski HA. Gender identity disorder: diagnosis and surgical aspects. J Sex Med. 2007;1193-207.
Cohen-Kettenis PT, Gooren LJ. Transsexualism: a review of etiology, diagnosis and treatment. J Psychosom Res. 1999;46(4):315-33.
Hepp U, Kraemer B, Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore A. Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res. 2005;58(3):259-61.
Wylie K. Gender related disorders.BMJ. 2004;329(7466):615-7.
Kaplan RM. The legal consequences of gender reassignment procedures. S Afr Med J. 2002;92(9):663.
Crovitz E. Treatment of the transsexual and medicolegal issues. Forensic Sci. 1976;7(1):1-8.
Eftekhar Ardebili M, Shayesteh Khoo S, Moshtagh Bidokhti N, Mehrabi F. The relations of sexuality, sex addiction and AIDS anxiety in homosexual and transsexuals in Iran. The 135th APHA Annual Meeting & Exposition; 2007 November 3-7. Washington DC. p S158.
Shayestehkhou S, Moshtagh Bidokhti N, Eftekhar M, Mehrabi F. Family environment of homosexual and transsexuals in Iran. The 135th APHA Annual Meeting & Exposition; 2007 November 3-7. Washington DC.p S55.
Farnoosh Hashemian. Social Stigma, Homosexuality and Transsexuality in the Islamic. The 135th APHA Annual Meeting & Exposition; 2007 November 3-7. Washington DC.
Khoshnood K, Hashemian F, Moshtagh N, Eftekahri M, Setayesh S. Social stigma, homosexuality and transsexuality in Iran. The 135th APHA Annual Meeting & Exposition; 2007 November 3-7. Washington DC.
Kahani A, Shojaei P. Gender identity disorder and transsexualism; Nedaye danesh publisher, ISBN: 964-456-700-5, 1th ed., 2002:48-9.
Dulko S, Imielinski C. The epidemiology of transsexualism in Poland. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2004;56(6):673.
Smith YL, Van Goozen SH, Kuiper AJ, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Sex reassignment: outcomes and predictors of treatment for adolescent and adult transsexuals. Psychol Med. 2005;35(1):89-99.
Godlewski J. Transsexualism and anatomic sex ratio reversal in Poland. Arch Sex Behav. 1988;17(6):547-8.
Vujovic S, Popovic S, Sbutega-Milosevic G, Djordjevic M, Gooren L. Transsexualism in Serbia: a twenty-year follow-up study. J Sex Med. 2009;6(4):1018-23.
Lawrence AA. Sexuality before and after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. Arch Sex Behav. 2005;34(2):147-66.
Lundstrom B. Gender dysphoria: a social-psychiatric follow-up study of 31 cases not accepted for sex reassignment. Goteborg, University of Gothenburg Press; 1981.
Michel A, Ansseau M, Legros JJ, Pitchot W, Mormont C. The transsexual: what about the future? Eur Psychiatry. 2002;17(6):353-62.
Meyer W J III, Bockting WO, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Coleman E, Di Ceglie D, Devor H, Gooren L, Hage JJ, Kirk S, Kuiper B, Laub D, Lawrence A, Menard Y, Monstrey S, Patton J, Schaefer L, Webb A, Wheeler CC. The standards of care for Gender Identity Disorders (6th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association. 2001.
Will MR., Legal conditions of sex reassignment by medical intervention-situation in comparative low. Proceeding of the 23rd colloquy on European Low: Strasburg: council of Europe 1995.
Coid J. Epidemiology, public health and the problem of personality disorder. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2003;44:S3-10. Review.
Najmabadi A. Transing and Transpassing across Sex-Gender Walls in Iran. Women's Studies Quarterly. 2008; 36( 3/4) 23-42.
Yousafzai AW, Bhutto N. Gender identity disorder. Is this a potentially fatal condition? J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2007;19(4):136-7.
- Abstract Viewed: 1032 times
- PDF Downloaded: 736 times