Virginity and Virginity Testing: Then and Now
International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine,
Vol. 6 No. 1(Winter) (2016),
12 February 2016
Background: Despite the increasing progresses in medicine and health in the 21st century especially in the area of reproductive health, myths related to “virginity” and “virginity testing” still figure out life and death in some communities after centuries. Overall, aim of this study was to investigate the myths and objective facts associated with virginity and virginity testing.
Methods: This review conducted by SID, Ovid, Science Direct, Pub Med, Pro Quest, Iran Medex, Google Scholar, Cochrane library, EBSCO, and United Nations Population Fund, WHO from 1980 to 2015. Keywords for search included virginity, virginity testing, hymen, sexual abstinence.
Results: The undeniable value of virginity, female virginity worth versus the shame of virginity for male, the idea to preserve virginity despite oral and anal sex and indicators to assess the intact hymen and wedding night bleeding to prove virginity are misconceptions that besides perceived premarital sex as signs of civilization and conflicts of gender inequality and violence against women lead to fail most of approaches against increasing of premarital sex.
Conclusion: Although programs such as "virginity pledge", "Silver Ring" and "Sexual abstinence education" are running in some countries, in order to expand virginity as a practical approach in controlling sexual transmitted diseases and teen pregnancy, the role of undeniable myths in advance to such approaches, the use of cultural, social and religious potentials of different societies to cope with the misconceptions and teaching of related objective facts seems necessary.
- Virginity Testing
- Sexual Abstinence
How to Cite
Duarte-Santos LA. Virginity and defloration; concepts and knowledge. Port Med. 1963;40(2):73-95.
Awwad J, Nassar A, Usta I , et al. Attitudes of Lebanese university students toward s surgical hymen reconstruction. Arch Sex Behav. 2013;24(42):27-35.
Harding D, Jencks CH. Changing Attitudes toward Premarital Sex. Public Opinion Quarterly. 2003;67(2):211-25.
Sprecher T, Stanislav T, John K. Premarital sexual standard socio sexuality: Gender, Ethnicity, and Cohort, Differences. Arch sex Behav. 2013;42(8):1395-405.
Hegazy A, Rukban A. Hymen: facts and conceptions. The Health. 2012;3(4):109-15.
Farahani FK, Shah I, Cleland J, Mohammadi MR. Adolescent Males and Young Females in Tehran: Differing Perspectives, Behaviors and Needs for Reproductive Health and Implications for Gender Sensitive Interventions. J Reprod Infertil.2012;13(2):101–10.
Antoinette M, Landor L, Gordon S. Why Virginity Pledges Succeed or Fail: The Moderating Effect of Religious Commitment Versus Religious Participation. J Child Fam Stud. 2014;26(3):1102-13.
Strong B, DeVault Ch, Theodore F, et al. The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationship in a Changing Society. Edition 11th Cengage Learning. 2010:186-8.
Melina M. Deborah A, Samantha W, et al. Defining Virginity and Abstinence: Adolescents’ Interpretations of Sexual Behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2007;41(6):182–8.
Juth N, Lynöe N. Zero tolerance against patriarchal norms? A cross-sectional study of Swedish physicians' attitudes towards young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restoration. J Med Ethics. 2014;26(10):113-6.
Laura M, Carpenter. Gender and meaning and experiencing virginity loss in the contemporary. 2002;16(3):345-365.
Guttmacher Institute. In Their Own Right: Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Men Worldwide. 2003:19–21.
Zeyneloğlu S, Kısa S, Yılmaz D. Turkish nursing students' knowledge and perceptions regarding virginity. Nurse Educ Today. 2013;33(2):110-5.
Zolisa C, Swaartbool X. Attitude and Perceptions of Girls in St Johns’s College about Virginity Testing. University of Limpopo. 2012. Available at: http://policyresearch.limpopo.gov.za/handle/123456789/714.
Shahhoseini Z, Simbar M, Ramezankhani A. Iranian Female Adolescents’ Reproductive Health Service’s Needs: A Qualitative Study. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2011;13(7):1580-5.
Halpern-Felsher BL, Cornell JL, Kropp RY, et al. Oral versus vaginal sex among adolescents: perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. Pediatrics. 2005;115:845-51.
Standring S. Gray's Anatomy. The anatomical basis of clinical. Practice.40th edition. Elsevier Inc. Churchill Livingstone. 2009.
Bernd H, Sibylle B, Roland C, Francesca N, Reinhard D. Physical Examination in Child Sexual Abuse. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2014;111(41):692-703.
Luthra M, Douglas S. Embryogenesis of the hymen and caudal end of the vagina deduced from uterovaginal anomalies. Pediatric Surgery International.1988;3(6):422-5.
Dwight J, Rouse F, Gary C, John C. Hauth M., Kenneth J. Leveno, Steven B. Williams Obstetrics.24rd edition. McGraw-Hill Companies. 2013.
Hobday A, haury L, Dayton P. Function of Hymen.Medical Hypothesis.1998;49(5):171-3.
Ellen M, Chiocca RN. Advanced Pediatric Assessment, Second Edition. Springer Publishing Company. 2013.
Stukus KS, Zuckerbraun NS. Review of the prepubertal gynecologic exami- nation: techniques and anatomic variation. Clin Ped Emerg Med. 2009;10:3-9.
Pokorny SF, Murphy JG, Preminger MK. Circumferential hymen elasticity. A marker of physiologic maturity. J Reprod Med. 1998;43:943-8.
Maher M, Saleh AM. The microscopic anatomy of the hymen, The Anatomical Record. 2005; 149(2):313-8.
Horan P, Phillips J, Hagan N. What is abstinence? The meaning of abstinence for college students. Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention and, Education for Adolescents and Children. 1998;2:51-65.
Juth N, Tännsjö T, Hansson S. Honor-related threats and human rights: a qualitative study of Swedish healthcare providers' attitudes towards young women requesting a virginity certificate or hymen reconstruction. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2013;18(6):451-9.
Gürsoy E, Vural G. Nurses' and midwives' views on approaches to hymen examination. Nursing Ethics. 2003;10(5):485-96.
Eşsizoğlu A, Yasan A, Yildirim EA, Gurgen F, Ozkan M. Double standard for traditional value of virginity and premarital sexuality in Turkey: a university student’s case. Women Health. 2011;51(2):136-50.
Cook RJ, Dickens BM. Hymen reconstruction: ethical and legal issues. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;107:266-9.
Fram M. The Cinnamon in developing and developed countries. Independent Review. 2006;11(2):261-74.
Solberg KE, Killing in the name of Honoure. Lancet. 2009;373(9679):1950-68.
Simbar M, Rahimian F, Ramezani F. Explain the understanding and experience of gynecologists and midwives from virginity testing and its impact on youth reproductive health, The final report of the research project. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. 2014.
Christianson M, Eriksson C. A girl thing: perceptions concerning the word "hymen" among young Swedish women and men. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2011;56(2):167-72.
Essén B, Blomkvist A, Helström L, Johnsdotter S.The experience and responses of Swedish health professionals to patients requesting virginity restoration. Report Health Matters. 2010;18(35):38-46.
Ilkkaracan P.Women, sexuality and social change in the Middle East and the Maghreb. Al-Raida XX . 2003;(99):12–22.
Wellings K, Martine C, Emma S, et al. Sexual Behavior in Context: A Global Perspective. Journal of Lancet. 2006;368(9548):1706–28.
Regnerus M, Uecker J. Premarital sex in America: How Young Americans Meet, Mate and Think about Marrying, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2011.
Lawrence B, Finer. Trends in Premarital Sex in the United States, 1954-2003.Public Health Report. January, the Guttmacher Institute. 2007;122:10-16
UNICEF. A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations. Available at http://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/repcard3e.pdf. 2006.
Zhang K, Li D, Li H, Beck EJ. Changing Sexual Attitudes and Behavior in China: Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Journal of Aids Care.1999; 11(5):581-9.
Simbar M, Ramezani F, Hashemi Z .Reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices of Iranian college students, Eastern Mediteranean Journal of Health. 2005;11(5, 6):199-208.
Simbar M, Ramezani Tehrani F, Hashemi Z. Knowledge and Attitude of students about reproductive health and associated factors in students of Qazvin, Pazhoohande. 1383;34(4):209-304.
Mohammad K, Farahani FK, Mohammadi MR, Alikhani S, et al. Sexual risk-taking behaviors among boys aged 15-18 years in Tehran. J Adolesc Health. 2007;41(4):407–14.
Legkauskas, V, Stankeviciee D. Premarital Sex and Marital Satisfaction of Middle Age Men and Women: A Study of Marriage Lithuanian Couples. Journal of Sex Role. 2009;60(1):21-32.
CDC. HIV Surveillance Report. 2012. Published 2014 Nov.
Gupta N, Kiran U, Bhal K. Teenage pregnancies: Obstetric characteristics and outcome. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2008;137;165–71.
Satterwhite CL, Torrone E, Meites E, et al. Sexually transmitted infections among U.S. women and men: prevalence and incidence estimates, Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:187–93.
CDC. Human papillomavirus (HPV.-associated cancers. Atlanta, GA.). 2013. Available at:www.cdc.gov/cancr/hpv/statics.
Coen Amy.Young people Reproductive health needs neglected. Fact sheets. Population Action international. 2012;19.
United Nation population found. 2002. Http://www.unfpa.org/aids/facs.htm
Khooshideh M. Pregnancy Outcome in Teenagers in East Sauterne Of Iran. JPMA. 2009;58:541-4.
Martino S, et al. Virginity Pledges Among the Willing: Delays in First Intercourse and Consistency of Condom Use, Journal of Adolescent health.2008;43(4):341-8.
Human Rights Watch. HRW. Report on conducting virginity tests for senior high school students. 2013. Availlab le at: www.hrw.org.
Faghihi A, Shokouhi Yekta M, Parand A. Sexual Education of Children And Adolescents Based On Islamic View And Psychological Studies. Biquarterly Journal of Islamic Education Fall – Winter. 2008;3(7):51-80.
- Abstract Viewed: 5863 times
- PDF Downloaded: 1051 times