Assessment of Risk Factors and the Effect of Drug Abuse on the Incidence of Ischemic Heart Disease in Patients Less Than 40 Years Old
International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine,
Vol. 11 No. 1 (2021),
23 January 2021
Introduction: in this study, we examined the risk factors and the effects of substance abuse on the incidence of ischemic heart disease in patients less than 40 years old in Shahid Rajaei Hospital in Karaj from 2019-2020.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done on 70 patients in the cases and 70 cases in the control groups. All demographic data, including age, gender, place of residence, weight, height, body mass index, cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors, including hypertension, high levels of blood fats, diabetes, a history of smoking cigarettes, tobacco, crystal meth, and cocaine, alcohol consumption, as well as a history of taking supplements for bodybuilding, and sex-enhancing drugs were obtained. Afterward, blood levels of glucose and fats were evaluated and urine analysis for the presence of drugs, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, buprenorphine, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, morphine, methadone, tramadol, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) was done. SPSS software version 22 was used for data analysis.
Results: Among the studied underlying factors and drugs, family history, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels above 130 mg / dL were significantly associated with a higher risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) (P <0.05). Interestingly, alcohol consumption and the use of tobacco, opium, methadone, heroin, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, methamphetamine, tramadol, benzodiazepines, TCA, buprenorphine, and anabolic steroids were not significantly associated with acute MI under 40 years (P> 0.05).
Conclusion: according to the results of the present study, it seems that a positive family history of MI under the age of 55, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and LDL levels above 130 mg/dL are more significant risk factors for acute MI in patients under 40 years of age in comparison with the consumption of alcohol and the use of hookah, opium, methadone, heroin, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, methamphetamine, tramadol, benzodiazepines, TCA, buprenorphine, and anabolic steroids. It should be noted that further studies in this area are recommended.
- MI, Drugs, CVD
How to Cite
2. Mohseni J, Kazemi T, Maleki MH, Beydokhti H. A systematic review on the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in Iran. Heart views: the official journal of the Gulf Heart Association. 2017 Oct;18(4):125.
3. Selwyn AP, Kinlay S, Libby P, Ganz P. Atherogenic lipids, vascular dysfunction, and clinical signs of ischemic heart disease. Circulation. 1997 Jan 7;95(1):5-7.
4. Christoffersen M, Frikke-Schmidt R, Schnohr P, Jensen GB, Nordestgaard BG, Tybjærg-Hansen A. Visible age-related signs and risk of ischemic heart disease in the general population: a prospective cohort study. Circulation. 2014 Mar 4;129(9):990-8.
5. Egred M, Viswanathan G, Davis GK. Myocardial infarction in young adults. Postgraduate medical journal. 2005 Dec 1;81(962):741-5.
6. Vedanthan R, Seligman B, Fuster V. Global perspective on acute coronary syndrome: a burden on the young and poor. Circulation research. 2014 Jun 6;114(12):1959-75.
7. Moran AE, Forouzanfar MH, Roth GA, Mensah GA, Ezzati M, Murray CJ, Naghavi M. Temporal trends in ischemic heart disease mortality in 21 world regions, 1980 to 2010: the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Circulation. 2014 Apr 8;129(14):1483-92.
8. Hoo FK, Foo YL, Lim SM, Ching SM, Boo YL. Acute coronary syndrome in young adults from a Malaysian tertiary care centre. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2016 Jul;32(4):841.
9. Magnusson BJ, Agnarsson U, Guðnason T, Þorgeirsson G. Acute myocardial infarction among Icelanders forty years old and younger 2005-2009. Comparison with a study carried out 1980-1984. Laeknabladid. 2017 Jan 1;103(1):11-5.
10. Deora S, Kumar T, Ramalingam R, Manjunath CN. Demographic and angiographic profile in premature cases of acute coronary syndrome: analysis of 820 young patients from South India. Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy. 2016 Jun;6(3):193.
11. Tini G, Proietti G, Casenghi M, Colopi M, Bontempi K, Autore C, Volpe M, Musumeci B. Long-term outcome of acute coronary syndromes in young patients. High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention. 2017 Mar 1;24(1):77-84.
12. Vanberg P, Atar D. Androgenic anabolic steroid abuse and the cardiovascular system. InDoping in Sports: Biochemical Principles, Effects and Analysis 2010 (pp. 411-457). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
13. Rezkalla S, Kloner RA. Cardiovascular effects of marijuana. Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2019 Oct 1;29(7):403-7.
14. Khodneva Y, Muntner P, Kertesz S, Kissela B, Safford MM. Prescription opioid use and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular death among adults from a prospective cohort (REGARDS Study). Pain Medicine. 2016 Mar 1;17(3):444-55.
15. Kadhum M, Jaffery A, Haq A, Bacon J, Madden B. Measuring the acute cardiovascular effects of shisha smoking: a cross-sectional study. JRSM open. 2014 May 6;5(6):2054270414531127.
16. Sayyah M, Shirbandi K, Javanmardi F, Rahim F. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse in Iranian high school students. Journal of Medicine and Life. 2018 Oct;11(4):262.
17. Kaye S, McKetin R, Duflou J, Darke S. Methamphetamine and cardiovascular pathology: a review of the evidence. Addiction. 2007 Aug;102(8):1204-11.
18. Piano MR. Alcohol’s effects on the cardiovascular system. Alcohol research: current reviews. 2017;38(2):219.
19. Jameson JL. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. McGraw-Hill Education,; 2018.
20. Li L, Setoguchi S, Cabral H, Jick S. Opioid use for noncancer pain and risk of myocardial infarction amongst adults. Journal of internal medicine. 2013 May;273(5):511-26.
- Abstract Viewed: 67 times