This study was designed to determine the etiology of status epilepticus (SE) andits relation to mortality.
Materials and Methods
This descriptive study was carried out based on the medical records of 40 patients with diagnosis of SE discharged from pediatric hospital of Bandar Abbas between March 2002 and March 2004. Multivariant analysis was pereformed to determine the prevalence of the disorder and the relation between SE and other factors such as gender, age, response to treatment, and mortality. We classified the etiology according to international league against epilepsy (ILAE) classification and also uses another classification regarding underlying causes such as fever (non-CNS infection), central nervous system infection, hypoxia, and metabolic causes.
Status epilepticus was responsible for 0.3% of all hospital dmissions during the study period. Based on the ILAE classification, frequencies for acute symptomatic, febrile, progressive encephalopathic, remote, and cryptogenic SE were 42.5%, 32.5%, 10%, 7.5%, and 7.5%, respectively.
The most common underlying causes resulting in SE were fever (45%), metabolic disorders (15%), CNS infection (12.5%), chronic neurologic diseases (7.5%), idiopathic (7.5%), hypoxia (5%), drug withdrawal (2.5%), CNS hemorrhage (2.5%), neurodegenerative disease (2.5%), brain abscess (2.5%), and post DPT (Diphteria,Pertusis,Tetanus) vaccination (2.5%). Mortality rate was 25% (80% in the patients younger than 5 years and 40% in those aged less than 1 year). Occurrence of SE and its mortality was found to be related to age (p< 0.05).
For SE, if seizures continue for more than 5 minutes, treatment must beinitiated. The outcome is determined by etiology, age, seizure duration and management; however, all we can do is enhance the management and increase its effectiveness.