Computerized cognitive training for improving cochlear-implanted children's working memory and language skills
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology,
Vol. 16 No. 4 (2022),
27 October 2022
Sensory deprivation, including hearing loss, can affect different aspects of a person’s life. Studies on children with hearing impairment have shown that such patients, especially those with cochlear implants (CIs), suffer from cognitive impairments, such as working memory problems and poor language skills. The present study aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive computer training in improving working memory and language skills in children with a CI.
This research was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test-post-test design and a control group. Fifty-one children with a CI aged 6-12 years were recruited through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to the control and treatment groups. The Wechsler Working Memory Subtest and the Test of Language Development (TOLD) were used to evaluate children’s working memory and language skills pre- and post-treatment. The treatment group attended twenty 50-60-minute cognitive computer training sessions three times a week.
Sina-Working Memory Training was used to provide the treatment group with working memory training, whereas no intervention was provided to the control group. Univariate and multivariate analyses
of covariance were used to analyze data.
The results demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive computer training in improving the performance of cochlear-implanted children’s working memory (auditory and visual-spatial) (P < 0.01). The results also pointed to improved performance in sentence imitation (P < 0.01), word discrimination (P < 0.01), and phonemic analysis
subtests (P < 0.01).
Overall, the findings indicated that cognitive computer training might improve working memory and language skills for children with CI. Therefore, the development and execution of such programs for children with CIs seem to improve their cognitive functions, such as working memory and language skills.
- Working memory
- Cochlear implant
- Language Development
- Cognitive training
How to Cite
Kronenberger WG, Pisoni DB, Henning SC, Colson BG, Hazzard LM. Working memory training for children with cochlear implants: a pilot study. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2011;54:1182-1196.
Pisoni DB, Conway CM, Kronenberger WG, Horn DL, Karpicke J, Henning SC. Efficacy and effectiveness of cochlear implants in deaf children, in: M. Marschark, P.C. Hauser (Eds.), Deaf cognition: foundations and outcomes. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008. pp. 52-101.
Conway CM, Pisoni DB, Kronenberger WG. The importance of sound for cognitive sequencing abilities: The auditory scaffolding hypothesis. Curr Direct Psychol Sci. 2009;18:275-279.
Ingvalson EM, Young NM, Wong PC. Auditory–cognitive training improves language performance in prelingually deafened cochlear implant recipients. Int J Pediatric Otorhinolaryngol. 2014; 78:1624-1631.
Burkholder RA, Pisoni DB. Speech timing and working memory in profoundly deaf children after cochlear implantation. J Exp Child Psychol. 2003;85:63-88.
Ullman MT, Pierpont EI. Specific language impairment is not specific to language: The procedural deficit hypothesis. Cortex. 2005;41:399-433.
Mayberry RI, Segalowitz SJ, Rapin I. Handbook of Neuropsychology. Canada: McGill University; 2002.
Beer J, Pisoni DB, Kronenberger W. Executive function in children with cochlear implants: The role of organizational-integrative processes. Volta Voices. 2009;16:18-21.
Figueras B, Edwards L, Langdon D. Executive function and language in deaf children. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 13 (2008) 362-377.
Pisoni DB, Conway CM, Kronenberger W, Henning S, Anaya E. Executive function, cognitive control, and sequence learning in deaf children with cochlear implants, in: Marschark M, Spencer PE (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language, and Education. New York: Oxford University Press; 2012.
Geers A, Brenner C, Davidson L. Factors associated with development of speech perception skills in children implanted by age five. Ear Hear. 2003;24:24S-35S.
Baddeley AD. Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Rev Neurosci. 2003;4:829-839.
Baddeley AD. Working memory, thought, and action. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.
Baddeley AD. Working memory. Sci. 1992;25:556-559.
Alloway TP, Gathercole SE, Willis C, Adams AM. A structural analysis of working memory and related cognitive skills in young children. J Exp Child Psychol. 2004;87:85-106.
Gillam RB, van Kleeck A. Phonological awareness training and short-term working memory: Clinical implications. Topics Lang Disord. 1996;17:72-81.
Nation K, Adams JW, Bowyer-Crane CA, Snowling MJ. Working memory deficits in poor comprehenders reflect underlying language impairments. J Exp Child Psychol. 1999;73:139-158.
Pickering S, Gathercole SE. Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C). London: Psychological Corporation; 2001.
Pisoni DD, Geers AE. Working memory in deaf children with cochlear implants: Correlations between digit span and measures of spoken language processing. Annals Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 2000;185:92-93.
Shah P, Miyake A. The separability of working memory resources for spatial thinking and language processing: an individual differences approach. J Exp Psychol General. 1996;125:4-27.
Swanson HL. Short-term memory and working memory: Do both contribute to our understanding of academic achievement in children and adults with learning disabilities? J Learn Disabil. 1994;27:34-50.
Cain K, Oakhill J, Bryant P. Children's reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. J Educ Psychol. 2004;96:31.
Cleary M, Pisoni DB, Geers AE. Some measures of verbal and spatial working memory in eight-and nine-year-old hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 2001;22:395-411.
MacDonald MC, Just MA, Carpenter PA. Working memory constraints on the processing of syntactic ambiguity. Cogn Psychol. 1992;24:56-98.
Klingberg T, Forssberg H, Westerberg H. Training of working memory in children with ADHD, J. Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2002;24:781-791.
Thorell LB, Lindqvist S, Bergman Nutley S, Bohlin G, Klingberg T. Training and transfer effects of executive functions in preschool children. Develop Sci. 2009;12:106-113.
Klingberg T, Fernell E, Olesen PJ, Johnson M, Gustafsson P, Dahlström K, et al., Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD-a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adol Psych. 2005;44:177-186.
Holmes J, Gathercole SE, Dunning DL. Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children. Develop Sci. 2009;12:F9-F15.
Dahlin KI. Working memory training and the effect on mathematical achievement in children with attention deficits and special needs. J Educ Learn. 2013;2:118-133.
Dahlin KI. Effects of working memory training on reading in children with special needs, Read Writ. 2011;24:479-491.
Roughan L, Hadwin JA. The impact of working memory training in young people with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, Learn Indiv Differ. 2011;21:759-764.
Newcomer P, Hammil D. Examiner’s manual: test of language development primary. Austin: Pro-Ed; 1997.
Newcomer P, Hammil D. Language development test TOLD-P3 (S. Hassanzadeh & A. Minaei, Trans.). Tehran: Organization Special Education; 2002. (Original work published 1997) (in Persian)
Wechsler D. WISC-IV technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation; 2003.
Abedi MR, Sadeghi A, Rabiei M. Standardization of the Wechsler intelligence scale for children- IV in Chahar Mahal Va Bakhtiari State, J Personal Indiv Differ. 2013;2:138-158. (in Persian).
Alloway TP, Bibile V, Lau G. Computerized working memory training: Can it lead to gains in cognitive skills in students? Comp Human Behav, 2013;29:632-638.
Cortese S, Ferrin M, Brandeis D, Buitelaar J, Daley D, Dittmann RW, et al. Cognitive training for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of clinical and neuropsychological outcomes from randomized controlled trials. J Am Acad Child Adol Psych. 2015;54:164-174.
Duong TT. How to improve short-term memory in interpreting. Hanoi: Hanoi University of Foreign Studies; 2006.
Farias AC, Cordeiro ML, Felden EP, Bara TS, Benko CR, Coutinho D, et al. Attention–memory training yields behavioral and academic improvements in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid with a learning disorder. Neuropsych. Dis Treat. 2017;13:1761-1769.
Witt M. School based working memory training: Preliminary finding of improvement in children’s mathematical performance. Adv Cognit Psychol. 2011;7:7-15.
Backman A, Truedsson E. Computerized working memory training in group and the effects of noise: a randomised pilot study with 7 to 9 year old children. Sweden: Lund University; 2008.
Abbasian Nik Z. Development of memory training program and its effectiveness on short term memory of deaf children with cochlear (Thesis). Iran: University of Tehran; 2012. (in Persian)
Archibald LM, Joanisse MF. On the sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition and sentence recall to language and memory impairments in children, J Speech Lang Hear Res 2009;52:899-914.
Conti-Ramsden G, Botting N, Faragher B. Psycholinguistic markers for specific language impairment (SLI). J. Child Psychol Psych Allied Discip. 2001;42:741-748.
Stokes SF, Wong AM, Fletcher P, Leonard LB. Nonword repetition and sentence repetition as clinical markers of specific language impairment: The case of Cantonese. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2006;49:219-236.
Cattani A, Clibbens J, Perfect TJ. Visual memory for shapes in deaf signers and nonsigners and in hearing signers and nonsigners: atypical lateralization and enhancement. Neuropsychol. 2007;21:114-121.
- Abstract Viewed: 308 times