Assessment of the Relationship between Body Mass Index and Gross Motor Development in Children
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology,
Vol. 11 No. 3 (2017),
3 July 2017
How to Cite This Article: Amouian S, AbbasiShaye Z, Mohammadian S, Bakhtiari M, Parsianmehr B. Assessment of the Relationship between Body Mass Index and Gross Motor Development in Children. Iran J Child Neurol.Summer 2017; 11(3):7-14.
Obesity is a growing epidemic and public health problem in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the gross motor development.
Materials & Methods
In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2012-13 in Gorgan, northern Iran, the gross motor development of 90 children 3-5 yr old in three groups of lean, normal and obese/overweight were evaluated by the ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ) and Denver 2 scale.
Totally, 90 children were enrolled and their developmental level was assessed with two ASQ and Denver II indices. The mean and standard deviation of the ASQ scores of the children was 53.11± 11.06 and based on Denver index, 9 children (10%) were at developmental delay status, 15 (16.7%) in the caution conditions, and 53 (58.9%) at normal developmental status. The developmental level was lower in obese/overweight group comparing with other groups according to both Denver and ASQ and there was a significant difference between obese/overweight group and normal group based in Denver and ASQ, respectively. There was no significant difference between underweight and normal and obese and underweight groups.
Overweight and obesity could affect on the gross motor development.
1. Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, D’hondt E, Cardon G. Objectively measured physical activit, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yrold children: across-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2009;14;6:25.
2. Smetanina N, Albaviciute E, Babinska V, Karinauskiene L, Albertsson-Wikland K, Petrauskiene A et al. Prevalence of overweight/obesity in relation to dietary habits and lifestyle among 7-17 years old children and adolescents in Lithuania. BMC Public Health 2015; 15: 1001.
3. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008. JAMA 2010; 20;303:242- 9.
4. D’hondt E, Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Lenoir M. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children. Adapt PhysActiv Q 2009;26:21-37.
5. Hurvitz EA, Green LB, Hornyak JE, Khurana SR, Koch LG. Body mass index measures in children with cerebral palsy related to gross motor function classification: a clinic-based study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2008;87:395–403.
6. Osika W, Montgomery SM. Physical control and coordination in childhood and adult obesity: Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study. BMJ 2008; 337: a699.
7. Lynch BA, Finney Rutten LJ, Jacobson RM, Kumar S, Elrashidi MY, Wilson PM, et al. Health Care Utilization by Body Mass Index in a Pediatric Population. Acad Pediatr 2015;15:644-50.
8. Morano M, Colella D, Robazza C, Bortoli L, Capranica L. Physical self-perception and motor performance in normal-weight, overweight and obese children. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2011; 21: 465–73.
9. D’Hondt E, Gentier I, Deforche B, Tanghe A, De Bourdeaudhuij, Lenoir M. Weight Loss and Improved Gross Motor Coordination in Children as a Result of Multidisciplinary Residential Obesity Treatment. Obesity 2011; 19:1999–2005.
10. Tandon P, Thompson S, Moran L, Lengua L. Body Mass Index Mediates the Effects of Low Income on Preschool Children’s Executive Control, with Implications for Behavior and Academics. Child Obes 2015; 11: 569–76.
11. Datar A, Sturm R. Childhood overweight and elementary school outcomes. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006;30:1449–60.
12. Nervik D, Martin K, Rundquist P, Cleland J. The Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3 to 5 Years. Ther 2011;23:144–48.
13. Vameghi R, Sajedi F, Kraskian Mojembari A, Habiollahi A, Lornezhad HR, Delavar B. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Validation and Standardization of Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) in Iranian Children. Iran J Publ Health 2013;42 :522-28.
14. Glascoe FP. Evidence-based approach to developmental and behavioural surveillance using parents’ concerns. Child Care Health Dev 2000;26:137-49.
15. Rydz, D, Shevell M, Majnemer A, Oskoui M. Developmental Screening. J Child Neurol 2005; 20,4.
16. Klamer A, Lando A, Pinborg A, Greisen G. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. Acta Pædiatrica 2005; 94: 1327–29.
17. Rydz D, Srour M, Oskoui M, Marget N, Shiller M, Birnbaum R, et al. Screening for developmental delay in the setting of a community pediatric clinic: a prospective assessment of parent-report questionnaires. Pediatrics 2006 ;118:1178-86.
18. Elbers J, Macnab A, McLeod E, Gagnon F.The Ages and Stages Questionnaires: feasibility of use as a screening tool for children in Canada. Can J Rural Med 2008 ;13:9-14.
19. Kerstjens JM, Bos AF, ten Vergert EM, de Meer G, Butcher PR, Reijneveld SA. Support for the global feasibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire as developmental screener. Early Hum Dev 2009;85:443-7.
20. Glascoe FP. Screening for developmental and behavioral problems. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11:173–79.
21. Glascoe FP. Using Parents’ Concerns to Detect and Address Developmental and Behavioral Problems. J Soc Pediatr Nurs 1999;4:24-3.
22. Graf C, Koch B, Kretschmann-Kandel E, Falkowski G, Christ H, Coburger S, et al. Correlation between BMI, leisure habits and motor abilities in childhood (CHILTproject). Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004 ;28:22-6.
23. Williams J, Wake M, Hesketh K, Maher E, Waters E. Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children. JAMA 2005;293(1):70-76.
24. Casajus JA, Leiva MT, Villarroya A, Legaz A, Moreno LA. Physical performance and school physical education in overweight Spanish children. Ann Nutr Metab 2007;51:288- 96.
25. Slining M, Adair LS, Goldman BD, Borja JB, Bentley M. Infant overweight is associated with delayed motor development. J Pediatr 2010; 157: 20–25.
26. Lopes VP, Stodden DF, Bianchi MM, Maia JA, Rodrigues LP. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children. J Sci Med Sport 2012;15:38-43.
27. Mond JM, Stich H, Hay PJ, Kraemer A, Baune BT. Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007;31:1068-73.
28. Cawley J, Katharina Spiess C. Obesity and Developmental Functioning Among Children Aged 2-4 Years. Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung 2008 ;786:1-12.
29. Siahkouhian M, Mahmoodi H, SalehiM. Relationship Between Fundamental Movement Skills and Body Mass Index in 7-To-8 Year-Old Children. World Appl Sci J 2011;15:1354-60.
30. Castetbon K, Andreyeva T. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally representative surveys. BMC Pediatrics 2012;12:28.
- Body mass index
- Gross motor development
- Denver II
How to Cite
- Abstract Viewed: 659 times