Pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular disorders in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench,
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the main liver diseases worldwide. The most common cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is cardiovascular disease. The relationship between these two conditions has been well established. Indeed, identical reasons may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with lifestyle factors such as smoking, sedentariness, poor nutritional habits, and physical inactivity being major aspects. This review focuses on potential pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular disorders in non-alcoholic fatty liver. PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, MIDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 2006 and 2022. Relevant articles were selected using the following terms: “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” “Сardiovascular diseases,” “Pathophysiological mechanisms.” The reference lists of all identified articles were searched for other relevant publications as well. The pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular disorders in non-alcoholic fatty liver remain largely speculative and may include systemic low-grade inflammation, atherogenic dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism and hepatic insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, gut dysbiosis, as well as the associated cardiac remodeling, which are influenced by interindividual genetic and epigenetic variations. It is clear that the identification of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disorders in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease will make the selection of therapeutic measures more optimal and effective.
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular diseases, pathophysiological mechanisms.
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