Research Article-Nursing


Background and Aim:



Regarding the worldwide efforts to implement and improve mother friendly services, and the rights of mothers for receiving quality care , there is a need for effective leadership and management of these hospital resources. Research in health sectors has shown that managers’ leadership style is related to effectiveness, efficiency, productivity. The purpose of

this study, was to examine the relationship between leadership style and implementation process of the “mother friendly Hospital Initiative” in selected hospitals in the West Country (province of Kurdistan, Hamedan and Kermanshah) in 1391 .

Materials and Method:



The study had a descriptive, correlational design. leadership style was measured by two questionnaires using a 5 point Likert scale, and a checklist for assessing the implementation of mother friendly services. The questionnaire were completed by managers and hospital personnel. The sample of the study consisted of 37 managers and 333 employees in selected hospitals in the provinces of Kurdistan, Hamedan and Kermanshah participated in this study. Initiatives process of The mother friendly hospital was evaluated by the monitoring list of mother friendly hospital in ministry of health. Validity of the questionnaire was assessed by content validity method and , the reability of the questionnaires was determined by internal consistency (r=0.798) for managers, (r=0.89) for staff, and the reability of the monitoring check list of mother friendly hospital was assured by inter-rater method (r=0/885). Data were analyzed done by Chi-square, Fisher Exact Test, Pearson correlation and one way anova tests using the SPSS software (version 16).




The results showed that leadership style of managers’ views are as follows: 67.6% Management consulting style, 24.3% benevolent- Autocratic style and the leadership style of 8.1% was Participative. While 61% from the employee’s perspective, leadership styles used by managers,

was benevolent-Autocratic, 21.3% consulting, 14.4% Autocratic – exploitation, 3.3% participative.

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ناراکمه و ینارهز کر




It can be said that the results were Relatively satisfactory in about the process of implementing

measures in mother friendly hospitals, and There is significant relationship between the leadership style employed in the first , third, Fifth, eighth and ninth proceedings in views of managers and

employees from the perspective of the second , fourth and seventh steps, based on ANOVA.

So th, the average ratio was higher in e authoritarian leadership style compared with and collaborative consulting style.






The findings of this study showed that autocratic leadership style was positively

correlated to more accelerated implementation of mother friendly hospital practices.



Leadership Styles, Benevolent-Autocratic Style, Autocratic – Exploitation Style, Participative Style, Consulting Styles, Mother Friendly Hospital




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ناراکمه و ینارهز کرت زانهش


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The Burden of Caregiverand Related Factorsof Oncology

nayereh Salmani, tahereh Ashketorab, shirin Hasanvand

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 84 (2015), 28 April 2015, Page 11-18





Caregivers of patients with leukemia facing with problems such as little chance of recovery in patients and probability of relapse and patient dependency and high responsibility such as increasing the

Leading to increased burden and mental, physical, emotional and social symptom.This study aimed to determine the burden and related factors in caregiver of patients with leukemia.





In descriptivestudy60caregiversof the patients hospitalizedin oncology of Shah Vali Hospital of Yazd city selected by non-random sampling .demographic questionnarrie and caregiver burden scale was completed. Caregiver burden scale validity with content validity and reliability

of caregiver burden scale with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, were analysis were done Spss soft ware whit Pbt-Test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient.




82.3% Caregivers were female, 30% caregivers were Spouse, 50% caregivers were children .The average of burden in all samples was high. Highest average of burden was related to the care of spouses. There was direct relationship between disease duration (r=0.5) ,age of care giver and age of patient (r =0.6)with burden. caregivers with low socioeconomic status (p=0.04) and patient in 3 phase (p=0.03) were reported high burden.




Because of high burden in caregivers of patients with leukemia, identify factors affecting the incidence of pressure care and their needs and design appropriate interventions to reduce stress and improve quality of life in caregivers and improve quality of care is necessary.



Burden, Informal Caregiver, Leukemia

Investigation of correlation between mothers’ marital satisfaction and depression among their adolescent in Shiraz

zahra Dastgheib, kamel Ghobadi Dashdebi, zabihollah Gharlipour Gharghani, fatemeh Hoseini, akbar Babaei Heydarabadi, asghar Ashrafi Hafez

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 84 (2015), 28 April 2015, Page 19-26





Depression is the most prevalent malady of the century. About 20 per cent of adolescents between 13 and 19 experience at least a fit of depression before 18. The present study investigated the relationship between mothers’ marital satisfaction and depression among their

adolescents in Shiraz, Iran.

Materials and Methods:



A correlational study was carried out on 300 teenagers of 14-19 years old (160 females and 140 males) and their mothers in educational year of 2009-10, whom were randomly selected among a pool of students from Shiraz’s four Educational Districts. A depression questionnaire with 21 items and a questionnaire of marital satisfaction with 47 items helped in collection of data. Pearson’s correlation of coefficients, regression, and independent t-tests helped

in data analysis.




The current study found depression among teenagers as 43.4 per cent and their mothers’ marital satisfaction as 19.2 per cent. We found an inverse significant relationship between marital satisfaction and adolescent depression in both genders (P<0.00d1), with mothers’ marital satisfaction accounting for 0.52 per cent of depression among their teenagers. There was a difference between

male and female teenagers in their depression scores (P<0.05). There was also a negative significant relationship between teenagers’ depression and mother’s education and family economic status.




Our findings underscored the importance of educational programs intended to prevent

depression among teenagers.



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Assessment of barriers for recording nursing diagnoses

mahsa Matbouei, eisa Mohammadi, maryam Zargarzadeh

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 84 (2015), 28 April 2015, Page 27-34


Background and Aim:



Nursing process is a systematic approach to identify, and treat human responses to health problems and illness. Studies have showed that implementing nursing process and its steps including recording nursing diagnosis, is facing many challenges in Iran many other countries.The aim of this study was to assess nurses, and nurse managers’ point of view about the barriers for documenting the nursing diagnoses.

Materials and Methods:



This cross - sectional study with a problem-solving approach examined the barriers for documenting the nursing diagnosis. The study was carried out in May 2013 in Besat Nahaja, Imam Hussain (AS), and Khatamolanbya hospitals in Tehran. The sample of the study consisted of 16 nurse managers (Supervisors and matrons) and 54 nurses, and were selected by convenience sampling method. A two-part questionnaire was used for data collection. The first part of the questionnaire included demographic information and the second part was consisted of questions regarding personal, managerial and organizational barriers for identifying and recording nursing diagnoses. Each items was rated in a 5 point likert scale.Validity of the instrument was assured by face and content validity method, and reliability was determined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha reliability. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics.




From point of view of nurses,managerial factors (2/77) were the main barriers for documentation of nursing diagnosis, while nurse managers (3/25) mentioned organizational factors as the most important barrier. Using a problem solving approach, establishing in service and continuing education programs is proposed.




The recommended strategy for improving documentation of nursing diagnoses is establishing in-service education programs on nursing process and nursing diagnoses and nursing




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The Relationship of Social Support and Religious Orientation with Relapse Rates in Opioid Dependent Patients under Methadone Maintenance Therapy

asghar Ashrafi Hafez, toktam Kazemeini, shadi Shayan

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 84 (2015), 28 April 2015, Page 35-44


Background and Aim:



Dependency to opium is a chronic and relapsing disorder that imposes great costs on individuals, families and society. The aim of this study is examining the relation between social support and religious orientation with relapse rates in opioid dependent patients under methadone maintenance therapy.

Materials and Method:



A descriptive –correlational design was used. The sample of the study consisted of a convenience sample of 200 male patients , were referred to substance treatment clinics of Mashhad since March 2012 to August 2012 and were treated by methadon. Sample was evaluated with Social Support Scale, Allport’s Religious Orientation questionnaire and demographic information form. Data were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient, enter and stepwise

multiple regression.




The results of this study revealed internal religious orientation (r=-0.52), family support (r=-0.48), and friends’ support (r=-0.33) were all in significant negative correlation with relapse rates (p< 0.01). It means that by increasing family support and internal religious orientation,the relapse rates were decreased. Also there was a significant positive correlation between external

religious orientation and relapse rates (r=0.50, p<0.01). Findings of linear regression and hierarchical regression analysis showed that all of these variables are predicting in total 0.62 of relapse rates variance, from which the contribution of internal religious orientation, external religious orientation, and family support respectively was 0.27, 0.06 and 0.04.




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strategies with stress, mental health, social support, probability of suicide and substance abuse in native and

innative college students]. The fifth seminar of college student’s mental health. Tehran, Iran. (Persian)





Comparison of direct and indirect nursing care time in 8-hour and 12-hour shifts

pouran Raeissi, amir ashkan Nasiripour, nahid Reisi

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 84 (2015), 28 April 2015, Page 45-51





Nurses are the largest and one of the most important groups of health care providers. The quality of health care mostly depends on the quality of direct and indirect nursing care. Measuring the average nursing care time is an objective measure for assessing the quality of patient care.The goal of the present study was to compare the time being devoted to professional – nonprofessional activities by nurses in 8 hours and 12 hours working shift in Shahid Modarres teaching hospital in Tehran.




A descriptive- comparative study was conducted on 30 nurses (27 female, and 3 male) working in medical and surgical wards of Shahid Modarres teaching hospital in Tehran. The nurses were working 8 and 12 hours shifts and in rotating schedule. Data were collected by direct observation of nurses’ activities,using a checklist with list of direct, indirect and nonprofessional nursing activities. The reliability of the checklist was assured by calculating inter observers’

agreement (The duration of time which nurses spent for each activity was recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Wilcoxon test.




The findings of the present study revealed that, nurses working 8 hour shift duration, spent 64.99% of their time on professional and 35.3% on nonprofessional activities (41.21% on direct nursing care, 23.78% on indirect nursing care, 22.53% on personnel affairs and 12.5% on administrative activities). Nurses with 12 hour shift duration, spent 65.59% of their times on professional activities and 33.92% on nonprofessional activities (41.57% on direct healthcare, 24.02% on indirect healthcare, 20.94% on personnel affairs and 12.98% administrative activities).




Nurses working in both 8 and 12 hours shift spend most of their times for professional activities (direct and indirect healthcare) and devote less time to nonprofessional activities (administrative and personal affairs), and these activities are independent of their shift duration



Working shift, Nurse, Direct nursing care, Indirect nursing care, Teaching hospital




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Association of between mental health and spiritual health among students in Shiraz University

zahra Dastgheib, zabihollah Gharlipour, kamel Ghobadi Dashdebi, fatemeh Hoseini, Reza Vafaee

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 84 (2015), 28 April 2015, Page 53-59


Background and aim:



Spiritual health is one of the most important social – cultural factors that may predict mental health. The main purpose of this study was to assess association between mental health and spiritual health among students in Shiraz University.

Materials and Method:



A descriptive-correlational design was used for the study.The study was conducted in 2012. A total number of 474 students (237 female and 237 male) were recruited in this study using a cluster sampling method. Data were collected using Goldberg’s Mental Health Questionnaire and Pulutzyn and Ellison spiritual health questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 software and two categories of descriptive and inferential statistical methods correlation and regression and t- tests.




The results of the study indicated that there is a significant relationship between mental

health and spiritual health scores in both sexes (P<001). Variable of spiritual health, can predict 70 percent mental health in female and male. T-test results showed that there is a difference between the means of spiritual health in boys and girls (p< 0/05).

Discussion & Conclusion:



Changings in the educational system and paying attention to mental health and spiritual health to meet the needs of students may be necessary. There is a need for further applied research for testing interventions to promote mental health and spiritual health students.

Key Words:


Mental health, spiritual health, Students




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Psychometri properties of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire in a sample of Iranian population

mohammad ali Besharat, saeeideh Bazzazian

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 84 (2015), 28 April 2015, Page 61-70


Background and Aims:



Emotion regulation refers to the ability to understand emotions and modulate emotional experience and expressions. Emotions are managed and regulated according to processes and techniques that may be employed automatically or purposely, as well as consciously or unconsciously. The main purpose of this study was to examine psychometric properties of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire.

Methods and methods:



Four hundred and seventy eight Iranian volunteers (226 males, 252 females) were included in this study. All participants were asked to complete the 18-item version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-28).




Test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the CERQ were examined at satisfactory levels. The CERQ scales of self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and other-blame revealed significant positive associations with depression, anxiety, stress and psychological distress, as well as significant negative associations with psychological well-being. The remaining scales of CERQ including acceptance, positive refocusing, planning, positive reappraisal, and putting

into perspective revealed significant negative associations with depression, anxiety, stress and psychological distress, as well as significant positive associations with psychological well-being.




It was concluded that the 18-item version of the CERQ can be considered as a reliable and valid scale to measure cognitive coping strategies in Iranian samples.



Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Reliability, Validity, Psychometry




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69 ب شش ر ظ




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Developmental care from theory to action

farin soleimani, Ferozeh Sajedi, Shahnaz Tork Zahrani

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 84 (2015), 28 April 2015, Page 71-77

Developmental care from theory to action
Soleimani Farin. ( M.D)1 , Sajedi Ferozeh2 (M.D)
Torkzahrani Shahnaz3 (M.Sc)
1. MD, Pediatrician, Associate Professor Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Scienc-es, Tehran, Iran.2. MD, Pediatrician, Associate Professor Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Scienc-es, Tehran, Iran.3. M.Sc. in Midwifery, Faculty member of Shahid Beheshti Medical University, Ph.D. Candidate Pediatric, Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Corresponding author: Torkzahrani Shahnaz;
Background: The premature or low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit admission are affected not only by body’s physiology and immature developmental condition but also by environmental stress; thereby they are at high risk of developing neurodevelopmental delay. The aim of this study was to review the emerging fi eld of neurodevelopmetal disorders and strategies to reduce it.
Materials and Methods: In this review article, Iranmedex، Sciencedirect،google Scholar، SID, PubMed, Scopus, and EBSCO-CINAHL databases between 1960 to 2013 were searched for finding the relevant studies.
Result: The review of literature indicates that developmental care mostly reports positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcomes and helps preterm infants cope with the environment of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Healing environment, partnering with families, positioning and handling, safeguarding sleep and optimizing nutrition are main core measures of developmental care. The structuring and designing of NICU environment for the high risk neonate has important policy implications for neonatal healthcare and beyond hospital stay.
Key Words: Developmental care, Neurodevelopment, NICU, preterm, low birth weight,