Research Article-Nursing


Knowledge and attitude regarding breastfeeding

Sh Jannesari, M Dolatian, H Alavi majd

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 17 No. 58 (2008), 4 April 2008 , Page 4-12

Background

Infant feeding decisions depend on knowledge and attitudes toward breast feeding, which may be formed as early as adolescence.

 

Purpose

The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess knowledge as well as attitude of female non-medical students regarding breast feeding in selected universities of Tehran in 2006.

 

Methods

800 students selected by multi-stage cluster randomized sampling took part in the study. A questionnaire completed by the subjects was used to collect data. Content and test-retest methods were used for its validity and reliability respectively.

 

Results

51.6% of the students had moderate knowledge and 41.6% had good knowledge regarding breast feeding. Knowledge of engineering students was more than the others. In addition, 75.4% of the subjects had positive attitude toward the feeding. There was a significant difference between attitude scores in three knowledge levels (good, moderate, poor) (P<0.01)

 

Conclusion

Findings showed that students need more knowledge in some aspects to have more positive attitude for performing a successful breast-feeding program.

 

Keywords

Knowledge, Attitude, Breast feeding.

 

Effects of respiratory exercises on pulmonary function of chemically afflicted soldiers in Khoramabad

A Ghahri Sarabi, Kh Heydarizadeh, N Barahimi, H Alavi Majd, F Yaghmaei

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 17 No. 58 (2008), 4 April 2008 , Page 13-20

Background

Following an extensive use of chemical weapons in imposed war of Iran, many known and unknown complications in different body systems particularly respiratory tract have been reported. To treat pulmonary complication of afflicted soldiers, different measures such as drug as well as oxygen therapy and rehabilitation are performed.

 

Purpose

This clinical trial was conducted to identify the effects of respiratory exercises (pursed lip and diaphragmatic breathing) on pulmonary function of chemically afflicted soldiers in Khoramabad in 2002.

 

Methods

68 soldiers with respiratory problems were randomly selected and divided in two experimental and control groups. They were matched in terms of age, body mass index, chemical gas type, duration of contact, number of hospitalization, type of cough, forced vital capacity indices, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and ….  Spirometry was used to monitor pulmonary function. The experimental group performed the exercises 15 minutes a day over 10 days. The indices were measured again after 10 days. A questionnaire, an assessment form for dyspnea severity and a special form for classifying the result of pulmonary function tests (PFT) were used for data collection.

 

Results

Findings showed a significant difference between the means of PFTs before and after the intervention in the experimental group and no difference in the control group. A significant difference was also found in the mean percentage of dyspnea severity reduction between the two groups before and after the intervention (P=0.000).

 

Conclusion

According to the results, pursed lip as well as diaphragmatic breathing would improve pulmonary function indices in spirometry and dyspnea severity would significantly decrease, which is similar to other studies.

 

Keywords

Pulmonary exercise, Pursed lip breathing, diaphragmatic breathing, Pulmonary function, chemically afflicted soldier

 

Cesarean rate and its related factors in

M Khosravi, MR Armat, N Khadem

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 17 No. 58 (2008), 4 April 2008 , Page 21-27

Background

According to the WHO, no region in the world can justify the Cesarean rate higher than 10-15%. However, statistics of most areas over the world show a great discrepancy with this figure. There has been a gradual increase in Cesarean births over the past 30 years with greater risk for maternal health, lengthier recovery, more cost, and increased mortality rate. Some authorities believe that over half of the Cesareans are unnecessary.

 

Purpose

This descriptive correlational study was conducted to determine the rate and related factors of Cesarean birth in Bojnurd.

 

Methods

473 singleton mothers delivering matured term newborns over 2500 gr. were selected. Delivery type was considered as a dependent variable whereas 20 other variables mainly associated with socioeconomic status of family and characteristics of mothers as well as infants were considered as independent variables. Data were collected by a questionnaire, measurement of infants’ head circumference and interview with mothers. Content and test-retest methods were used respectively to validate and made the tool reliable (r=0.7).

 

Results

Cesarean birth rate in Bojnurd was 25.4% and was positively correlated with better job position and parents’ level of education (p<0.006), urbanism (p=0.001), less family members (0.008), newborns weighing 3900 grams or more (p=0.0.55), greater head circumference (p=0.0), heavy prenatal weight (p=0.013), and higher maternal age (p=0.054).

 

Conclusion

With respect to increased Caesarian rate in mothers with better socioeconomic status and higher age, it seems that providing appropriate educational plans for families and decreasing marital age by national planning may decrease the rate.

 

Keywords

Cesarean, Delivery type, Cesarean rate

Effects of aromatherapy and massage on pain of patients with multiple sclerosis

F Atashzadeh Shorideh, Sh Mohammadi, Zh Abed Saeedi, H Alavi Majd, M Salehi Sormeghi

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 17 No. 58 (2008), 4 April 2008 , Page 28-32

Background

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of common autoimmune diseases with 0.1% incidence in the world population. Pain is one of its clinical manifestations and, according to recent studies, it mostly remains untreated. Pain relief is a primary nursing intervention and, currently, complementary therapies such as massage and aromatherapy are increasingly used for it.

 

Purpose

This quasi-experimental study was conducted to compare between the effects of massage with menthol (aromatherapy) and sweet almond on MS-related pain in patients referring to Mazandaran MS Association in Sari, 2006.

 

Methods

80 MS patients were selected by purposive sampling method. Inclusion criteria consisted of age between 20 and 40; no massage prohibition; presence of pain in lumbar or distal extremities; no history of allergy, headache and respiratory diseases. Data were collected by a questionnaire in two parts: demographics and McGill pain scale (0-5). Its validity and reliability were checked by content and internal consistency (r=0.88) methods respectively. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: massage group receiving sweet almond massage and aromatherapy group receiving aromatic (mint abstract) menthol massage. Severity of pain was recorded and compared before and after the intervention.

 

Results

Finding showed no difference between the groups in terms of demographic data and pain severity before the intervention (P< 0.05). On the other hand, a significant difference was found within (P<0.001) and between (P<0.001) the groups after the intervention.

 

Conclusion

It can be concluded that both methods have significant effects on pain severity but massage with menthol is more effective. Since studies in this regard are limited, further investigations are warranted.

 

Keywords

Multiple sclerosis, Pain, Massage, Aromatherapy, Menthol, Mint abstract   

Background

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of common autoimmune diseases with 0.1% incidence in the world population. Pain is one of its clinical manifestations and, according to recent studies, it mostly remains untreated. Pain relief is a primary nursing intervention and, currently, complementary therapies such as massage and aromatherapy are increasingly used for it.

 

Purpose

This quasi-experimental study was conducted to compare between the effects of massage with menthol (aromatherapy) and sweet almond on MS-related pain in patients referring to Mazandaran MS Association in Sari, 2006.

 

Methods

80 MS patients were selected by purposive sampling method. Inclusion criteria consisted of age between 20 and 40; no massage prohibition; presence of pain in lumbar or distal extremities; no history of allergy, headache and respiratory diseases. Data were collected by a questionnaire in two parts: demographics and McGill pain scale (0-5). Its validity and reliability were checked by content and internal consistency (r=0.88) methods respectively. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: massage group receiving sweet almond massage and aromatherapy group receiving aromatic (mint abstract) menthol massage. Severity of pain was recorded and compared before and after the intervention.

 

Results

Finding showed no difference between the groups in terms of demographic data and pain severity before the intervention (P< 0.05). On the other hand, a significant difference was found within (P<0.001) and between (P<0.001) the groups after the intervention.

 

Conclusion

It can be concluded that both methods have significant effects on pain severity but massage with menthol is more effective. Since studies in this regard are limited, further investigations are warranted.

 

Keywords

Multiple sclerosis, Pain, Massage, Aromatherapy, Menthol, Mint abstract   

Role of addiction in motorcycle accidents in MashhadBackground

E Araghi, M Vahedian

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 17 No. 58 (2008), 4 April 2008 , Page 33-39

Background

Today, governmets pay heavy costs to fight drug abuse. There is a long history of abuse in Iran and, according to WHO, Iran has the first rank in traffic accidents.

 

Purpose

This descriptive research was done to determine addiction role in motorcycle accidents in Mashhad

 

Methods

400 bikers experiencing accident and referred to Shaheed Kamyab Hospital (a major trauma center in Mashad) were selected according to inclusion criteria. They were hospitalized at different wards during 2005. A questionnaire completed by interveiw, an observational checklist and medical records were used for data collection.

 

Results

Findings showed that most subjects were men between 21 and 30. 17.3% of them had a history of drug abuse mostly opium by smoking and inhalation. 33% of them were cigarette smokers and 25% drank alcohol. Most injures were on extremities. There was a significant relationship between sex, work shift, kinds of safety devices, drug abuse as well as mortality and kinds of damage but no significant relationship was found between transportation quality to hospital as well as accident types and injuries.

 

Conclusion

Findings showed that using drugs, alcohol and cigarette was relatively prevalent among injured bikers, which is a predisposing factor in accidents. Thus, preventing this type of use is crucial. Improving knowledge, cultural beliefs, and safe alternative recreational activities, legislating strict laws and controlling borders are ways to restrict tendency to addiction and the resultant reduction of accidents.

 

 

Keywords

Addiction, Accidents, Motorcycle.

 

 

 

Relationship between kind of delivery and dysmenorrhea

F Nahidi, L Bagheri, Sh Jannesari

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 17 No. 58 (2008), 4 April 2008 , Page 40-48

Background

The term dysmenorrhea is currently used to refer to painful menstruation. The cause of primary dysmenorrhea has not been clearly elucidated. It has been said anecdotally that childbirth can ameliorate menstrual pain and some articles have proved a significant effect of childbirth on dysmenorrhea. Further investigations regarding the effects of delivery mode on dysmenorrhea has been rarely published.

 

Purpose

This analytical retrospective study was conducted to identify relationship between the modes of delivery and dysmenorrhea and to compare its severity at early and late age of childbearing in women referring to selected hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical University in 2006.

 

Methods

160 women between 36 and 44 were selected by convenience sampling method. An information form was used for data collection, validated and made reliable by content and test-retest methods respectively.

 

Results

Findings showed a significant decrease in dysmenorrheal pain at the time of study compared with early age of childbearing, before the first delivery. In women with dysmenorrhea, Caesarian rate was more than normal vaginal delivery and 46.2% of them had chosen Caesarian for their delivery.       

 

Conclusion

According to the results, delivery decreases dysmenorrheal pain. In addition, dysmenorrhea had been experienced more in women who were delivered by Caesarian. Therefore, the importance of normal vaginal delivery should be more emphasized in this regard.

 

Keywords

Dysmenorrhea, Delivery، Caesarian.

Comparing clinical manifestations of myocardial infarction (MI) between men and women at CCUs of hospitals affiliated to Shaheed Beheshti Medical University

M Nikravan, F Moradi, M Maleki, H Alavi Majd, S Zohari Anboohi

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 17 No. 58 (2008), 4 April 2008 , Page 45-49

Background

Myocardial infarction (MI) is an irreversible necrosis of myocardium usually resulted from complete obstruction of coronary arteries and sudden disruption of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle. Studies suggest that, in addition to various reasons for inappropriate management of MI, one of the causes is unfamiliarity of patients and healthcare professionals including nurses regarding difference of MI manifestations in women and men leading to wastage of golden time for invasive and noninvasive measures and the resultant complications and even death.

 

Purpose

This descriptive-comparative study was conducted to identify the difference of clinical manifestations of MI in women and men hospitalized at CCUs of hospitals affiliated to Shaheed Beheshti Medical University in 2006.

 

Methods

330 patients (165 men and 165 women) were selected by purposive sampling method. Data collection tools included an information form, a checklist, and McGill’s questionnaire. Content and face validities were determined by expert views and reliability of the tools was determined by internal consistency (r=0.86).

 

Results

No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of demographics and quality, severity and pattern of pain (P<0.05). Men experienced more severe pain and pain along with chest discomfort than women. In contrast, pain commencement in a location other than chest, lack of pain and chest discomfort, and only chest discomfort were seen more in women than men (P0.02). Women experienced vomiting, dyspnea, fatigue/lassitude and anxiety more significantly than men while men had hiccups, perspiration and syncope more than women.

 

Conclusion

Findings showed no difference between men and women in quality, severity and pattern of MI pain. However, manifestations such as vomiting, dyspnea, anxiety, location of pain and … were different between men and women.

 

Keywords

Myocardial infarction, MI manifestations,  MI in women.

Biophysiological measures: A critique on MS theses in Shaheed Beheshti Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery

A Darvishpoor Kakhaki, F Yaghmaei, M Mozafary

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 17 No. 58 (2008), 4 April 2008 , Page 50-55

Background

Biophysiological measures are the most common instruments for collecting data in medical science studies. To collect valid and reliable data, it is critical to apply these measures appropriately.

 

Purpose

The aim of this study was to assess and critique the validity and reliability of biophysiological measures in MS theses in Shaheed Beheshti Faculty of nursing and midwifery.

 

Methods

343 nursing and 166 midwifery theses were first assessed to identify those with biophysiological measures and in 48 ones with these measures, methods used for identifying their validity and reliability were checked.

 

Results

Findings showed that scientific methods for examining accuracy, selectivity, precision, sensitivity and calibration of biophysiological measures were not accurately applied.

 

Conclusion

This study reveals inadequate application of scientific methods regarding to accuracy and precision of biophysiological measures. Accordingly, better methods for identifying accuracy and precision of biophysiological measures should be applied. 

 

Keywords

Biophysiological measures, Nursing thesis, Midwifery thesis.