• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

The Protective Effects of Pulsed Magnetic Field and Melatonin on Testis Torsion and Detorsion Induced Rats Indicated by Scintigraphy, Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Histopathological Methods

Serdar Savas Gul, Serkan Gurgul, Murat Uysal, Fikret Erdemir




Purpose: The aim of the present study was to show the protective effect of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) application and melatonin administration on damage in testis in a one-sided torsion detorsion induced rat model using testicular scintigraphy with 99mTc pertechnetate, PET/CT with 18F-FDG and histopathological methods.

Materials and Methods: Sixty male rats were used in the study; 30 rats were randomly divided into five groups for one day applications of sham control, torsion, melatonin, pulsed magnetic field (PMF) and melatonin plus PMF. Similarly, for one week group, the other 30 rats were divided into the same five group (n=6), but the animals were sacrificed after one week. Rats were exposed to 50 Hz, 1 mT PMF for two hours. PET/CT with 37 MBq 18F-FDG and testicular scintigraphy with and 37 MBq 99mTc pertechnetate examinations were carried out, and testicular tissue was examined using histopathological methods.  

Results: In one day treatment, melatonin administration significantly increased perfusion and glucose metabolism compared to torsion group (p<0.01). Perfusion and glucose metabolism was also higher in the PMF and melatonin plus PMF groups than torsion group (p<0.01). In one week treatment, melatonin administration resulted in a significant higher perfusion rate and glucose metabolism rate compared to torsion group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). In addition, perfusion and glucose metabolism significantly increased in PMF and melatonin plus PMF groups compared to torsion group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, caspase-3 immunoreactivity and pathological changes increased in the torsion group (p<0.05). Melatonin and melatonin plus PMF treatment reduced the rate of immunoreactivity and pathological findings compared to the torsion group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: According to these results it can be concluded that PMF application had a therapeutic benefit as effective as melatonin administering. In addition, it was indicated that PET/CT with 18F-FDG and testicular scintigraphy with 99mTc pertechnetate could be efficiently used in determining the treatment efficiency in testicular torsion.


Gultekin A, Tanriverdi HI, Inan S, Yilmaz O, Gunsar C, Sencan A. The Effect of Tunica Albuginea Incision on Testicular Tissue After Detorsion in the Experimental Model of Testicular Torsion. Urol J. 2018;15(1):6006-13.

Barada JH, Weingarten JL, Cromie WJ. Testicular salvage and age related delay in the presentation of testicular torsion. Journal of Urology. 1989;142:746-8.

Akgür FM, Kilinç K, Aktug T. Reperfusion injury after detorsion of unilateral testicular torsion. Urol Res. 1993;21:395.

Menger MD, Rücker M, Vollmar B. Capillary dysfunction in striated muscle ischemia/reperfusion: On the mechanisms of capillary “no-reflow ”. Shock. 1997;8:2-7.

Tang D, Kang R, Zeh HJ, III, Lotze MT. Oxidative Stress, and Disease. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;14(7):1315-35.

Aktan G, Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Küçükgergin C, Kadioglu A, Ozdemirler-Erata G, Koçak-Toker N. Mystery of idiopathic male infertility: is oxidative stress an actual risk? Fertil Steril. 2013;99(5):1211-5.

Morielli T, O'Flaherty C. Oxidative stress impairs function and increases redox protein modifications in humanspermatozoa. Reproduction. 2015;149(1):113-23.

Karaguzel E, Kadihasanoglu M, Kutlu O. Mechanisms of testicular torsion and potential protective agents. Nat Rev Urol. 2014;11(7):391-9.

Payabvash S, Salmasi AH, Kiumehr S, et al. Salutary effects of N-acetylcysteine on apoptotic damage in a rat model of testicular torsion. Urol Int. 2007;79(3):248-54.

Parlaktas BS, Atilgan D, Ozyurt H, et al. The biochemical effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the ipsilateral and contralateral testes of rats and the protective role of melatonin. Asian J Androl. 2014;16(2):314-8.

Al-Maghrebi M, Kehinde EO, Anim JT. Long term testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis: involvement of survi vindown-regulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395(3):342-7.

Abueid L, Uslu Ü, Cumbul A, Velioglu Ögünç A, Ercan F, Alican I. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase byzileuton in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Anatol J Cardiol. 2017;17(4):269-75.

Turner TT, Caplis LA, Rhoades CP. Testicular vascular permeability: effect of lesions associated with impaired testis function. J Urol. 1996;155:1078-82.

Tanyel FC, Büyükpamukçu N, Hiçsönmez A. Contralateral testicular blood flow during unilateral testicular torsion. Br J Urol. 1989;63:522-4.

Mogilner JG, Lurie M, Coran AG, Nativ O, Shiloni E, Sukhotnik I. Effect of diclofenac on germ cell apoptosis following testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat. Pediatric Surgery International. 2006;22: 99-105.

Melekos MD, Asbach HW, Markou SA. Etiology of acute scrotum in 100 boys with regard to age distribution. Journel of Urology. 1988;139:1023-5.

Prater JM, Overdorf BS. Testicular torsion: a surgical emergency. American family physician. 1991;44:834-40.

Fonkalsrud EW. Testicular undescent and torsion. Pediatric clinics of North America. 1987;34:1305-17.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. The definition and measurement of antioxidants in biological systems. Free Radical biology&medicine. 1995;18:125-6.

Clark IA. Tissue damage caused by free oxygen radicals. Pathology. 1986;18:181-186.

Pham-Huy L, He H, Pham-Huy C. Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health. Int J Biomed Sci. 2008;4:89-96.

Datta S, Kundu S, Ghosh P, De S, Ghosh A, Chatterjee M. Correlation of oxidant status with oxidative tissue damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. ClinRheumatol. 2014;33(11):1557-64.

Glasauer A, Chandel NS. Targeting antioxidants for cancer therapy. BiochemPharmacol. 2014;92(1):90-101.

Udupa AS, Nahar PS, Shah SH, Kshirsagar MJ, Ghongane BB. Study of comparative effects of antioxidants on insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Diagn Res. 2012;6(9):1469-73.

Ware LB, Fessel JP, May AK, Roberts LJ 2nd. Plasma biomarkers of oxidant stress and development of organ failure in severe sepsis. Shock. 2011;36(1):12-7.

Cvetkovic T, Stankovic J, Najman S, et al. Oxidant and antioxidant status in experimental rat testis after testicular torsion/detorsion. Int J Fertil Steril. 2015;9(1):121-8.

Kanter M. Protective effects of melatonin on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Exp Mol Pathol. 2010;89(3):314-20.

Orlinsky M, Shoemaker W, Reis ED, Kerstein MD. Current controversies in shock and resuscitation. Surg Clin North Am. 2001;81(6):1217-62.

Ribeiro CT, Milhomem R, De Souza DB, Costa WS, Sampaio FJ, Pereira-Sampaio MA. Effect of antioxidants on outcome of testicular torsion in rats of different ages. J Urol. 2014;191(5):1578-84.

Tang F, Wu X, Wang T, et al. Tanshinone II A attenuates atherosclerotic calcification in rat model by inhibition of oxidative stress. Vascul Pharmacol. 2007;46(6):427-38.

Soufi FG, Sheervalilou R, Vardiani M, Khalili M, Alipour MR. Chronic resveratrol administration has beneficial effects in experimental model of type 2 diabetic rats. Endocr Regul. 2012;46(2):83-90.

MacNee W. Oxidants/antioxidants and COPD. Chest. 2000;117(5):303-17.

Erdemir F, Parlaktas BS, Özyurt H, Boztepe Ö, Atis Ö, sahin s. Antioxidant Effect of Melatonin in Systemic Circulation of Rats After Unilateral Testicular Torsion. Turk J Med Sci. 2008;38(1):1-6.

Huang J, Wanga D, Chen J, et al. Osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by magnetic nanoparticle composite scaffolds under a pulsed electromagnetic field. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2017;25:575-9.

Arjmand M, Ardeshirylajimi A, Maghsoudi H, Azadian E. Osteogenic differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on nanofibrous scaffold improved in the presence of pulsed electromagnetic field. J Cell Physiol. 2017;9999:1-10.

Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field. Clinics. 2011;66(7):1237-45.

Shayegani H, Divband G, Tavakkoli M, Banihasan M, Sadeghi R. Torsion of the undescended testis detected by 99mTc testicular scintigraphy: a case report. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2016;19:24-5.

Lavallee ME, Cash J. Testicular torsion: evaluation and management. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005;4(2):102-4.

Wu HC, Sun SS, Kao A, Chuang FJ, Lin CC, Lee CC. Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography in the differentiation of acute testicular torsion and inflammatory testicular disease. Clin Nucl Med. 2002;27(7):490-3.

Börksüz MF, Erselcan T, Hasbek Z, Yücel B, Turgut B. Morphologic and Metabolic Comparison of Treatment Responsiveness with 18Fludeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography According to Lung Cancer Type. Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2016;25(2):63-9.

Hasbek Z, Yucel B, Salk I, et al. Potential impact of atelectasis and primary tumor glycolysis on F-18 FDG PET/CT on survival in lung cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(9):4085-9.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4404


  • There are currently no refbacks.