The Epidemiology of Symptomatic Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections in the Intensive Care Unit: A 4-year Single Center Retrospective Study

Renyu Ding, Xiaoxia Li, Xiaojuan Zhang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma

Abstract


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Purpose: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs frequently in critical illness with significant morbidity, mortality, and additional hospital costs. The epidemiology of symptomatic ward-acquired CAUTI (within 48 hours of intensive care unit [ICU] admission) has not been carefully examined. The objective of our study was to identify the patient characteristics and microbiology of symptomatic CAUTI in critical illness.

Materials and Methods: A 4-year retrospective observational study (2013-2016) was conducted at a single adult ICU with 30 beds in a tertiary hospital in Northeast China. The enrolled patients were over 18 years of age and had been diagnosed as having symptomatic CAUTIs in the ICU from January 2013 to December 2016. The information of clinicopathological characteristics (such as age, sex, underlying diseases, hospital admission diagnosis, ICU admission source, severity of illness, duration of urinary catheterization, use of antibiotics, duration of ICU stay, and ICU mortality) was recorded in an electronic database by senior clinicians who were blinded to the study purpose and design. Microbiological data were retrieved from the computerized hospital database.

Results: Between January 2013 and December 2016, 4115 patients were admitted to the ICU. Ninety-eight symptomatic CAUTI cases were enrolled in this study, including 29 patients who had ward-acquired CAUTI and 69 patients who had ICU-acquired CAUTI. Patients with ward-acquired symptomatic CAUTI had significantly shorter overall ICU length of stay and shorter urinary catheterization time, and the overall ICU mortality was significantly higher in patients who had ICU-acquired symptomatic CAUTI. More third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems were used prior to CAUTI in the patients with ICU-acquired symptomatic CAUTI. Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii were the most common bacteria causing ward-acquired and ICU-acquired CAUTI, respectively. There were a higher number of cases of non-Candida albicans infections in patients with ICU-acquired symptomatic CAUTI than in patients with ward-acquired symptomatic CAUTI.

Conclusion: Clinical characteristics, microbiological characteristics, and prognosis were different between ward-acquired and ICU-acquired symptomatic CAUTI. Patients with ICU-acquired symptomatic CAUTI had higher overall ICU mortality.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4256


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