Purpose: To define timing and methods for a balanced follow-up of testicular microlithiasis (TM) in pediatric age.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 21 pediatric asymptomatic patients (42 testicular units) diagnosed with TM and without associated risk factors. Microliths were found bilaterally on ultrasonography in all the patients. Distribution of microliths (focal or diffuse) inside the parenchyma was evaluated as well as its eventual variation over time. Every six months, each patient underwent clinical and ultrasonography evaluation, as well as serum chemistry markers (α-fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin) measurement to detect potential malignancy. In the interval between the follow-ups, parents and/or patients themselves were asked to control eventual enlargement of the gonads or scrotal swelling. Testicular biopsy was not performed in any of our subjects. Results: Of 21 patients, 6 had unilateral undescended testis, 4 varicocele, and 1 patent processus vaginalis with scrotal swelling while 10 patients did not show associated anomalies. The distribution pattern of microliths on ultrasonography remained unchanged in all follow-ups in every patient, showing a predominance of diffuse pattern in the undescended testis series. Tumor markers remained within normal limits. In no subject, we observed a shift toward a malignant condition. Conclusion: In the pediatric population with an incidentally diagnosed TM and without any associated risk factor, a slight follow-up is suggested, consisting of clinical evaluation every 6 months, without any justifiable recommendation to perform a testis biopsy and a measurement of serum tumor markers.