National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System–based study in north eastern of Iran

Maliheh Ziaee--- Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran,
Reza Vafaeenejad--- Mashhad University of medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran,
Gholamreza Bakhtiari--- Msc, Mashhad University of medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran,
Irandokht Mostafavi--- Mashhad University of medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran,
Maliheh Gheibi--- Mashhad University of medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran,
Javad Mahmoudi Fathabadi--- Mashhad University of medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran,
Mojtaba Taghvaei Ahmadi--- Health Department, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract


170

among about 10% of hospitalized patients. HAIs increase mortality and morbidity and prolonged hospital stay not to mention considerable costs they impose on the health care system. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the prevalence of HAIs based on National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System in hospitals of Mashhad, Iran.

  Methods: The current prevalence study of HAI was carried out in 26 hospitals using a protocol updated yearly in Mashhad, Iran. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance were used to define four HAIs. All patients admitted to the hospitals during a one-year period (March 1, 2015-February 30, 2016) were recruited in the study. Data was extracted using Iranian nosocomial infection surveillance software.

  Results: The overall prevalence rate of HAI in our study was 0.8% among the hospitals with the most frequent HAIs found to be pneumonia (25%), followed by urinary tract infections (20%), and blood stream infections (19%). The highest prevalence rate was observed in 15- to 65-year old patients with more than 50% related to surgical site infection. Also, the most frequently isolated micro-organism was acinetobacter. In addition, the highest seasonal prevalence was seen in winter with pneumonia as the most frequent infection. A total of 4988 pathogens were isolated with 30.33% of clinical confirmation and 69.66% of positive culture.

  Conclusion: These findings emphasize the need for appropriate measures for prevention, screening, labeling, and isolation precautions for infected patients.


Keywords


Cross Infection; Disease; Hospitals; Infection Control; Nosocomial

Full Text:

PDF

108

References


Vincent JL. Nosocomial infections in adult intensive-care units. The Lancet. 2003;361(9374):2068-77.

Eriksen HM, Iversen BG, Aavitsland P. Prevalence of nosocomial infections inhospitals in Norway, 2002 and 2003. J Hosp Infect. 2005;60(1):40-5.

Gikas A, Pediaditis J, Papadakis JA, Starakis J, Levidiotou S, Nikolaides P, Kioumis G, Maltezos E, Lazanas M, Anevlavis E, Roubelaki M, Tselentis Y; Greek Infection Control Network. Prevalence study of hospital-acquired infections in 14 Greek hospitals: planning from the local to the national surveillance level. J Hosp Infect. 2002;50(4):269-75.

Orsi GB, Di Stefano L, Noah N. Hospital-acquired, laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection: increased hospital stay and direct costs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23(4):190-7.

Venberghe A, Laterre P, Goenen M, Reynaert M, Wittebole X, Simon A, Haxhe JJ. Surveillance of hospital-acquired infections in an intensive care department-the benefit of the full-time presence of an infection control nurse. J Hosp Infect. 2002;52(1):56-9.

Askarian M, Gooran NR. National nosocomial infection surveillance system–based study in Iran: Additional hospital stay attributable to nosocomial infections. American journal of infection control. 2003;31(8):465-8.

Lizioli A, Privitera G, Alliata E, Antonietta Banfi EM, Boselli L, Panceri ML, Perna MC, Porretta AD, Santini MG, Carreri V. Prevalence of nosocomial infections in Italy: result from the Lombardy survey in 2000. J Hosp Infect. 2003J;54(2):141-8.

Gamer J, Jarvis W, Emori T, Horan T, Hughes J. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections. Am J Infect Control. 1988;16(3):128-40.

Gikas A, Pediaditis I, Roumbelaki M, Troulakis G, Romanos J, Tselentis Y. Repeated multi-centre prevalence surveys of hospital-acquired infection in Greek hospitals. CICNet. Cretan Infection Control Network. J Hosp Infect. 1999;41(1):11-8.

Rüden H, Gastmeier P, Daschner FD, Schumacher M. Nosocomial and community-acquired infections in Germany. Summary of the results of the First National Prevalence Study (NIDEP). Infection. 1997;25(4):199-202.

Vaqué J, Rosselló J, Trilla A, Monge V, García-Caballero J, Arribas JL, Blasco P, Sáenz-Domínguez JR, Albero I, Calbo F, Barrio J, Herruzo R, Sáenz-González C, Arévalo JM. Nosocomial infections in Spain: results of five nationwide serial prevalence surveys (EPINE Project, 1990 to 1994). Nosocomial Infections Prevalence Study in Spain. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1996;17(5):293-7.

Scheel O, Stormark M. National prevalence survey on hospital infections in Norway. J Hosp Infect. 1999;41(4):331-5.

Mylotte JM, Graham R, Kahler L, Young BL, Goodnough S. Impact of nosocomial infection on length of stay and functional improvement among patients admitted to an acute rehabilitation unit. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2001;22(2):83-7.

Whitehouse JD, Friedman ND, Kirkland KB, Richardson WJ, Sexton DJ. The impact of surgical-site infections following orthopedic surgery at a community hospital and a university hospital: adverse quality of life, excess length of stay, and extra cost. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23(4):183-9.

Riley TV, Codde JP, Rouse IL. Increased length of hospital stay due to Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea. Lancet. 1995;345(8947):455-6.

Liu JW, Su YK, Liu CF, Chen JB. Nosocomial blood-stream infection in patients with end-stage renal disease: excess length of hospital stay, extra cost and attributable mortality. J Hosp Infect. 2002;50(3):224-7.

Noel I, Hollyoak V, Galloway A. A survey of the incidence and care of postoperative wound infections in the community. J Hosp Infect. 1997;36(4):267-73.

Law D, Mishriki S, Jeffery P. The importance of surveillance after discharge from hospital in the diagnosis of postoperative wound infection. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1990 May; 72(3): 207–209.

French Prevalence Survey Study Group. Prevalence of nosocomial infections in France: results of the nationwide survey in 1996. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2000;46(3):186-93.

EPINE Working Group. Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Spain. Journal of Hospital Infection. 1992;20(1):1-13.

Sax H, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, Herrault P, Pittet D. Variation in nosocomial infection prevalence according to patient care setting:a hospital-wide survey. J Hosp Infect. 2001;48(1):27-32.

Pfaller MA, Jones RN, Messer SA, Edmond MB, Wenzel RP. National surveillance of nosocomial blood stream infection due to species of Candida other than Candida albicans: frequency of occurrence and antifungal susceptibility in the SCOPE Program. SCOPE Participant Group. Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1998;30(2):121-9.

Anaissie EJ, Rex JH, Uzun O, Vartivarian S. Predictors of adverse outcome in cancer patients with candidemia. Am J Med. 1998;104(3):238-45.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/sdh.v3i2.17014

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.