• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Comparing Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nursing Support in Mothers With Newborn Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) and Mothers of Healthy Neonates

Seyedeh Najmeh Hosseini, Arash Ghodousi, Narges Sadeghi, Somayeh Abbasi




Background: The experience of having neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a psychological crisis. It might cause many emotional problems for parents. Entire parental support is among the duties of the healthcare team. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the nursing support received by the mothers with Newborn Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) and the mothers of other neonates admitted to the NICU.
Methods: The present cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted in the selected hospitals in Kerman Province, Iran. In total, 62 mothers with NAS and 61 non-addicted mothers with neonates admitted to the NICU were selected through convenience sampling method. The inclusion criteria were neonates under the care of parents, neonate admitted to the NICU for at least 24 hours, opiate dependence in the case group mothers, and no substance dependence in the control group mothers. The amount of nursing support for mothers having neonates with NAS was compared with that of the control mothers. The study groups were homogenized in terms of the study variables (neonate age, gender, and the duration of hospitalization). The required data were collected by the Nurse-Parent Support Tool (NPST) and analyzed in SPSS.
Results: The study results revealed that among the neonates of 123 mothers, 75 (60.97%) were boys, and 58(39.02%) were girls. The majority of neonates in both groups were breastfed. The Mean±SD age of the mothers in the case and control group were 31.93±7.25 and 28.99±4.36 years, respectively. The nursing support level was desirable in both groups, and no significant difference was found in this regard (P>0.05). Furthermore, the level of nursing support in emotional, information-communication, self-esteem, and quality caregiving support dimensions was desirable in both groups.
Conclusion: The obtained results revealed that nurses’ support was desirable in both groups. The prevalence of maternal addiction and the impact of this social harm on neonates who were admitted are essential. Furthermore, families having neonates with NAS need more support from the healthcare staff and nurses, in comparison with healthy parents; thus, the importance of this issue should be addressed in training and briefing courses for nurses.


Nurse, Neonate, Newborn Abstinence Syndrome (NAS), Intensive care unit ueonatal


‎1.‎ Taghavi Rafsanjani A, Haeri Rohani SA, Pourshanazari A, Shamsizadeh A, Allahtavakoli M. [Effect of nicotine administration on ‎physical and psychological signs of withdrawal syndrome induced by single or repeated doses of morphine in rat (Persian)]. ‎Quarterly Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 20(3):347-58.‎

‎2.‎ Haghparast A, Khani A, Naderi N, Alizadeh AM, Motamedi F. Repeated administration of nicotine attenuates the development of ‎morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2008; 88(4):385-92. ‎‎[DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2007.09.010] [PMID]‎

‎3.‎ Kalueff AV, Tuohimaa P. The grooming analysis algorithm discriminates between different levels of anxiety in rats: Potential utility ‎for neurobehavioural stress research. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2005; 143(2):169-77. ‎‎[DOI:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2004.10.001] [PMID]‎

‎4.‎ Jones HE, Kaltenbach K, Heil SH, Stine SM, Coyle MG, Arria AM, et al. Neonatal abstinence syndrome after methadone or ‎buprenorphine exposure. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010; 363(24):2320-31. [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1005359] [PMID] ‎‎[PMCID]‎

‎5.‎ Saeidi R, Farkhani EM, Saeidi M, Izadi S. Neonatal effects of substance abuse during pregnancy. Iranian Journal of Neonatology. ‎‎2016; 7(2):40-3. [DOI:10.22038/IJN.2016.7265]‎

‎6.‎ Holmes AV, McLeod AY, Bunik M. ABM clinical protocol #5: Peripartum breastfeeding management for the healthy mother and ‎infant at term, revision 2013. Breastfeeding Medicine. 2013; 8(6):469-73. [DOI:10.1089/bfm.2013.9979] [PMID] [PMCID]‎

‎7.‎ Nayeri F, Firozi M, Kalani M, Ebrahim B. Frequency of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) and type of the narcotic substance in ‎neonates born from drug addicted mothers. Iranian Journal of Neonatology. 2015; 5(4):1-5.‎

‎8.‎ Heidari H, Fooladi M, Hasanpour M. [Exploring parental stress relief factors in neonatal Intensive Care Unit(s) (Persian)]. The ‎Journal of Urmia Nursing and Midwifery Faculty. 2015; 13(7):639-47. [DOI:10.9734/BJMMR/2015/15804]‎

‎9.‎ Rasti M, Aliabadi F, Shafarodi N, Rafiee F, Kalani M. [Specification of the educational needs of parents with premature infants ‎admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (Persian)]. Journal of Modern Rehabilitation. 2014; 8(4):21-9.‎

‎10.‎ Seyed Fatemi N, Haghani H. [Study of realationship between social support and parents satisfaction of provided care for ‎premature infants in selected hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences 1394 (Persian)]. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2015; ‎‎2(2):39-48.‎

‎11.‎ Hosseini SS, Baniasadi H, Pouraboli B. [Stressors of parents of hospitalized preterm infants: A study in neonatal Intensive Care ‎Unit of Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran (Persian)]. Journal of Health and Development. 2015; 4(4):337-48.‎

‎12.‎ Sikorova L, Kucova J. The needs of mothers to newborns hospitalised in intensive care units. Biomedical papers of the Medical ‎Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia. 2012; 156(4):330-6. [DOI:10.5507/bp.2011.046] [PMID]‎

‎13.‎ Miles MS, Carlson J, Brunssen S. The nurse parent support tool. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 1999; 14(1):44-50. ‎‎[DOI:10.1016/S0882-5963(99)80059-1]‎

‎14.‎ Mehdizadeh S, Abbasi S, Payami BM. [Nursing support and premature s infants in neonatal intensive care units: The views of ‎mothers (Persian)]. Payesh. 2017; 16(2):231-8.‎

‎15.‎ Akbarbeglou M, Valizadeh L, Asad EM. [Mothers and nurses viewpoint about importance and rate of nursing supports for parents ‎with hospitalized premature newborn in natal intensive care unit (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Critical Care Nursing. 2009; 2(2):71-‎‎4.‎

‎16.‎ Azizmohammadi S, Alavi H. [The relationship between drug abuse in pregnant women and pregnancy complications in Shahid ‎Akbarabadi Treatment-Training Center: 2009 (Persian)]. Journal of Nurse and Physician Within War. 2013; (23-24):29-33.‎

‎17.‎ Alaee Karhrouy F, Jafari Mianaie S, Rassouli M, Zayeri F. [Evaluating the effectiveness of parent empowerment (COPE) program on ‎participation of mothers of preterm infants hospitalized in NICUs of hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences ‎and Health Services, 2009-2010 (Persian)]. Advances in Nursing & Midwifery. 2014; 23(81):55-65.‎

‎18.‎ Maguire D, Webb M, Passmore D, Cline G. NICU nurses’ lived experience: Caring for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome. ‎Advances in Neonatal Care. 2012; 12(5):281-5. [DOI:10.1097/ANC.0b013e3182677bc1] [PMID]‎

‎19.‎ Cheraghi F, Sanahmadi A, Soltanian Ar, Sadeghi A. Nurses’communication skills with mothers and hospitalized children during ‎nursing care at the children’s wards. Avicenna Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Care. 2016; 24(3):193-200. [DOI:10.21859/nmj-‎‎24037]‎

‎20.‎ Jackson K, Ternestedt BM, Magnuson A, Schollin J. Quality of care of the preterm infant-the parent and nurse perspective. Acta ‎Paediatrica. 2006; 95(1):29-37. [DOI:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.tb02176.x] [PMID]‎

‎21.‎ Maxton FJ. Old habits die hard: Changing paediatric nurses’ perceptions of families in ICU. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing. ‎‎1997; 13(3):145-50. [DOI:10.1016/S0964-3397(97)80873-7]‎

‎22.‎ Crocetti MT, Amin DD, Jansson LM. Variability in the evaluation and management of opiate-exposed newborns in Maryland. ‎Clinical Pediatrics. 2007; 46(7):632-5. [DOI:10.1177/0009922807300699] [PMID]‎

‎23.‎ Obeidat HM, Bond EA, Callister LC. The parental experience of having an infant in the newborn intensive care unit. The Journal of ‎Perinatal Education. 2009; 18(3):23-9. [DOI:10.1624/105812409X461199] [PMID] [PMCID]‎

‎24.‎ Shields L, Hunter J, Hall J. Parents’ and staff’s perceptions of parental needs during a child’s admission to hospital: An English ‎perspective. Journal of Child Health Care. 2004; 8(1):9-33. [DOI:10.1177/1367493504041851] [PMID]‎

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32598/ijmtfm.v9i4.26184