• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Prognosis and Complications of Attempted Suicidal Hanging

Azadeh Memarian, Kamran Aghakhani, Babak Soltani, Siamak Soltani




Background: Hanging is a form of strangulation, in which the body is suspended through the neck and the weight of the body acts as a constricting force. This study assessed various factors on the outcome of hanging and identification of prognostic factors related to the outcomes.
Methods: Ninety-nine hanging victims from 1995 to 2015 in Iran were evaluated; then, variables such as the cause of death, distribution of mortality, duration of hospitalization, substance abuse consumption, respiratory distress, and cerebral edema were studied in these people. Finally, the data were analyzed.
Results: Major cases of suicide by hanging were men. In connection with prognosis, about 12% of the deaths occurred in men and about 21% were represented in women. More importantly, in the matter of suspension, the model was largely incomplete to complete. Also, the outcomes of pulmonary stress and cerebral edema were recognized in association with the type of hanging and mortality prognosis.
Conclusion: Only two risk factors, including loss of consciousness at the time of entry into the medical center, as well as the complete suspension, would be predictive operations of death and unsuccessful revival.


Suicidal hanging, Prognostic factor, Respiratory distress syndrome


‎1.‎ Singh R, Sharma Y, Buri S, Saini O, Joshi A, Mathur P. Attempted hanging and fracture of hyoid bone-a rare case ‎report. Indian Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. 2014; 12(4):83-5. [DOI:10.5958/0974-‎‎4487.2014.00882.7]‎

‎2.‎ Reay DT, Bonnell HJ, Luke JL, Eisele JW. Correlation of circumstances with pathological findings in asphyxial deaths ‎by hanging: A prospective study of 61 cases from Seattle, WA. Journal of Forensic Science. 1985; 30(4):1140-7. ‎‎[DOI:10.1520/JFS11055J]‎

‎3.‎ Wilkinson D, Gunnell D. Comparison of trends in method‐specific suicide rates in Australia and England & Wales, ‎‎1968-97. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 2000; 24(2):153-7. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-‎‎842X.2000.tb00135.x] [PMID]‎

‎4.‎ Beautrais AL. Methods of youth suicide in New Zealand: Trends and implications for prevention. Australian and ‎New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2000; 34(3):413-9. [DOI:10.1080/j.1440-1614.2000.00690.x] [PMID]‎

‎5.‎ Simounet C, Bourgeois M. Suicides and attempted suicides by hanging. Annales Médico-Psychologiques. 1992: ‎‎150(7):481-5.‎

‎6.‎ Aufderheide TP, Aprahamian C, Mateer JR, Rudnick E, Manchester EM, Lawrence SW, et al. Emergency airway ‎management in hanging victims. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1994; 24(5):879-84. [DOI:10.1016/S0196-‎‎0644(94)70206-3]‎

‎7.‎ DiMaio VJ, DiMaio D. Forensic pathology. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001.‎

‎8.‎ Saukko P, Knight B. Knight’s forensic pathology. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004. [DOI:10.1201/b13642]‎

‎9.‎ Adams N. Near hanging. Emergency Medicine. 1999; 11(1):17-21. [DOI:10.1046/j.1442-2026.1999.00314.x]‎

‎10.‎ Snowdon J. Suicide rates and methods in different age groups: Australian data and perceptions. International ‎Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1997; 12(2):253-8. [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199702)12:23.0.CO;2-L]‎

‎11.‎ Hawtdn K, Houston K, Shepperd R. Suicide in young people: study of 174 cases, aged under 25 years, based on ‎coroners and medical records. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1999; 175(3):271-6. [DOI:10.1192/bjp.175.3.271] ‎‎[PMID]‎

‎12.‎ Wilkinson D, Gunnell D. Youth suicide trends in Australian metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, 1988-1997. ‎Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2000; 34(5):822-8. [DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2000.00812.x] ‎‎[PMID]‎

‎13.‎ Nair S, Jacob J, Aaron S, Thomas M, Joseph M, Alexander M. Pulmonary distress following attempted suicidal ‎hanging. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009; 63(2):53-7. [DOI:10.4103/0019-5359.49227] [PMID]‎

‎14.‎ Üzün İ, Büyük Y, Gürpinar K. Suicidal hanging: Fatalities in Istanbul retrospective analysis of 761 autopsy cases. ‎Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2007; 14(7):406-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.jflm.2007.01.002] [PMID]‎

‎15.‎ Bayramoglu A, Saritemur M, Gur ST, Emet M. Demographic and clinical differences of aggressive and non-‎aggressive suicide attempts in the emergency department in the eastern region of Turkey. Iranian Red Crescent ‎Medical Journal. 2015; 17(2):e24666. [DOI:10.5812/ircmj.24666] [PMID] [PMCID]‎

‎16.‎ Matsuyama T, Kitamura T, Kiyohara K, Hayashida S, Nitta M, Kawamura T, et al. Incidence and outcomes of ‎emergency self-harm among adolescents: A descriptive epidemiological study in Osaka City, Japan. BMJ Open. ‎‎2016; 6:e011419. [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011419] [PMID] [PMCID]‎

‎17.‎ Ambade VN, Kolpe D, Tumram N, Meshram S, Pawar M, Kukde H. Characteristic features of hanging: A study in ‎rural district of central India. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2015; 60(5):1216-23. [DOI:10.1111/1556-4029.12772] ‎‎[PMID]‎

‎18.‎ Ambade VN, Tumram N, Meshram S, Borkar J. Ligature material in hanging deaths: The neglected area in forensic ‎examination. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2015; 5(3):109-13. [DOI:10.1016/j.ejfs.2014.07.002]‎

‎19.‎ Suarez-Penaranda JM, Alvarez T, Miguens X, Rodriguez-Calvo MS, de Abajo BL, Cortesao M, et al. Characterization ‎of lesions in hanging deaths. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2008; 53(3):720-3. [DOI:10.1111/j.1556-‎‎4029.2008.00700.x] [PMID]‎

‎20.‎ Lester D. Suicide and homicide in Costa Rica. Medicine, Science, and the Law. 1995; 35(4):316-8. ‎‎[DOI:10.1177/002580249503500408] [PMID]‎

‎21.‎ Elfawal MA, Awad OA. Deaths from hanging in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Medicine, Science, and the ‎Law. 1994; 34(4):307-12. [DOI:10.1177/002580249403400406] [PMID]‎

‎22.‎ Sane MR, Mugadlimath AB, Zine K, Farooqui JM, Phalke BJ. Course of near-hanging victims succumbed to death: a ‎seven year study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2015; 9(3):HC01-HC03. ‎‎[DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2015/11189.5647] [PMID] [PMCID]‎

‎23.‎ Matsuyama T, Okuchi K, Seki T, Murao Y. Prognostic factors in hanging injuries. The American Journal of ‎Emergency Medicine. 2004; 22(3):207-10. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2004.02.012] [PMID]‎

‎24.‎ Penney DJ, Stewart AH, Parr MJ. Prognostic outcome indicators following hanging injuries. Resuscitation. 2002; ‎‎54(1):27-9. [DOI:10.1016/S0300-9572(02)00050-3]‎

‎25.‎ Martin MJ, Weng J, Demetriades D, Salim A. Patterns of injury and functional outcome after hanging: Analysis of ‎the National Trauma Data Bank. The American Journal of Surgery. 2005; 190(6):838-43. ‎‎[DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2005.05.051] [PMID]‎

‎26.‎ Salim A, Martin M, Sangthong B, Brown C, Rhee P, Demetriades D. Near-hanging injuries: A 10-year experience. ‎Injury. 2006; 37(5):435-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2005.12.013] [PMID]‎

‎27.‎ Kasmaee VM, Zohrevandi B, Asadi P, Shakouri N. Non-judicial hanging in Guilan Province, Iran between 2011 and ‎‎2013. Emergency. 2015; 3(4):155-8. [PMID] [PMCID]‎

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32598/ijmtfm.v9i4.23172