Effect of Midazolam Alone Versus Midazolam with Maternal presence on pain and Anxiety of Lumbar Puncture in 6 to 24-Month-Old Children

Farzad Ferdosian, Rihaneh Esteghamat, Razieh Fallah, Tamkin Shahraki





 Midazolam at a dosage of 0.51 mg/kg induces anxiolytic effects in 90% of children. This study was performed to elucidate whether intravenous midazolam with maternal presence is more efficient than intravenous midazolam alone in the reduction of pain and anxiety of lumbar puncture (LP) in 6 to 24-month-old children.

Materials & Methods

In this not-blinded clinical trial, we included 60 children aged 6 to 24 months old undergoing LP in the Pediatric Ward of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran, from September 2014 to March 2015. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups, and all of them received painless injection of 0.5 mg/kg midazolam five minutes before LP. In group I, LP was performed with maternal presence and in group II, the mothers were absent. The primary outcomes included anxiety and pain scores before LP and during needle insertion to the skin for LP. The secondary outcomes comprised of success rates in the reduction of anxiety (anxiety score of four and more) and pain (pain score of less than three) when the needle was inserted to the skin for LP.


 Twenty-eight girls and 32 boys were evaluated in the two groups. Maternal presence was found to be effective in the reduction of anxiety (2.7±0.65 vs. 3.83±0.87; P=0.001) and pain scores (3.8±1.75 vs. 6.1±1.63, P=0.001). In the maternal presence group, success rate in anxiety (76.7% vs. 16.6%; P=0.0001) and pain reduction (63.3 % vs. 6.7%; P=0.0001) was higher than in the midazolam alone group.                                                                                                                  Conclusion

Maternal presence during lumbar puncture  can reduce pain and anxiety among 6 to 24-month-old children.  


Child, Lumbar Puncture, Maternal Presence, Pain, Midazolam, Sedation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v14i1.17800


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