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Introducing tumor necrosis factor as a prominent player in celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus

Sina Rezaei-Tavirani, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Reza Vafaee, Enseih Khalkhal, Aliasghar Keramatinia, Mohammad Javad Ehsani Ardakani, Mohammadreza Razzaghi




Aim: This study was aimed to screen the common genes between celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus to find critical ones.

Background: Celiac disease as a chronic autoimmune disorder that is correlated to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in several molecular pathways. Achieve to the clear common molecular mechanism of the both diseases is attracted attention of scientists.

Methods: The related genes to the CD and T1DM were obtained from disease query of STRING and included in two separated PPI networks by Cytoscape software version 3.7.1. The networks were analyzed by network analyzer and the hub nodes were determined. The common hubs between the two networks were selected for more analysis and enriched via gene ontology by using ClueGO plugin of Cytoscape software and action map was provided by Cluepedia application of Cytoscape software.

Results: Two separated networks of 2000 and 430 genes related to T1DM and CD, respectively were constructed. Numbers of 84 and 28 hubs were determined for T1DM and CD, respectively. There are 11 common hubs between the two networks. The first top hubs of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and CD networks were insulin (INS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), respectively. Number of 77 biological terms and pathways (in five clusters) were related to the common hubs. Action map revealed near relationship between hubs.

Conclusion: The result of this study indicated that TNF is key mediator of immune reactions in celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus.


Celiac disease, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, TNF, Insulin


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/ghfbb.v12i0.1833