• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

The Effectiveness of Group Counseling Based on Metacognitive Therapy and Dialectic Behavior Therapy on Reducing Anxiety in Boy Adolescent of Divorce

Ali Akbar Godini, Mohsen Rasouli, Farshad Mohsenzadeh




Background: Anxiety among teenagers may disturb their life, and it is no controlling results in severe problems. Therefore, the present research was designed and conducted by the aim of investigating the effectiveness of group counseling training based on metacognitive therapy & dialectic behavior therapy on reducing anxiety in boy adolescent of divorce.

Methods: The present research conducted by quasi-experimental method and used a pretest-posttest with control group design. The statistical population of the current research included all boy students of divorced parents in Karaj in 2017-2018. Among them, 36 persons selected by convenience sampling method, and they were assigned into experimental and control groups (12 individuals per group) randomly. Before the intervention, the Beck Anxiety Inventory executed on participants. Group counseling therapy based on metacognitive therapy and dialectic behavior therapy provided for the experimental group subjects in sixteen 90-minute sessions, while the participants of the control group received no intervention. Posttest executed for all three groups after completing the training. The research data were analyzed by covariance analysis and by SPSS-22 software.

Results: Covariance analysis findings indicated that metacognitive therapy and dialectic behavior therapy groups had significant decreasing than the control group after interventional (P > 0.05). Also, results indicated than there was no significant difference between the effectiveness of metacognitive therapy and dialectic behavior therapy on anxiety decreasing among boy teenagers of divorced teenagers (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Based on the results of the present research, we can state that dialectic behavior therapy and metacognitive therapy by changing negative cognitions reduce anxiety among divorced children.


Metacognitive therapy; Dialectic behavior therapy; Anxiety; Divorce.


Karimi Y, Almasi S, Mohammadi R, Fazeli H. A Phenomenological Inquiry of the Divorce Contexts among Divorced Individuals. Clinical Psychology Studies. 2017;7(25):191-211. doi: 10.22054/ jcps.2017.7138.

Amato PR. The consequences of divorce for adults and children: An update. Društvena istraživanja: časopis za opća društvena pitanja. 2014;23(1):5-24. doi: 10.5559/ di.23.1.01.

Nederhof E, Belsky J, Ormel J, Oldehinkel AJ. Effects of divorce on Dutch boys’ and girls’ externalizing behavior in Gene x Environment perspective: diathesis stress or differential susceptibility in the Dutch Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey study? Dev Psychopathol. 2012;24(3):929-39. doi: 10.1017/ s0954579412000454.

Gonzalez L, Viitanen T. The Long-Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children. Oxf Bull Econ Stat. 2018;80(2):327-57. doi: 10.1111/obes.12200.

Pickhardt C. Surviving your child’s adolescence: how to understand, and even enjoy, the rocky road to independence. 1st ed. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.

Wallerstein JS, Blakeslee S. Second chances: men, women, and children a decade after divorce. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 2004.

Weaver JM, Schofield TJ. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children’s behavior problems. J Fam Psychol. 2015;29(1):39-48. doi: 10.1037/fam0000043.

Hosseini SM, Fathi Ashtiani A, Rabie M, Nouhi S, Fajarak H. Effectiveness of metacognitive therapy in reducing the signs and symptoms of patients suffering from General Anxiety Disorder. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2014;8(3):239-46. [Persian].

Hajsadeghi Z, Yazdi-Ravandi S, Pirnia B. Compassion- Focused Therapy on Levels of Anxiety and Depression Among Women with Breast Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Trial. Int J Cancer Manag. 2018;11(11):e67019. doi: 10.5812/ijcm.67019.

Johnson SU, Hoffart A, Nordahl HM, Wampold BE. Metacognitive therapy versus disorder-specific CBT for comorbid anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial. J Anxiety Disord. 2017;50:103-12. doi: 10.1016/j. janxdis.2017.06.004.

Melli G, Carraresi C, Poli A, Bailey R. The role of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety. Pers Individ Dif. 2016;89:80-5. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.006.

Azami E, Hajsadeghi Z, Yazdi-Ravandi S. The comparative study of effectiveness of training communication and emotional skills on parenting stress of mothers with autism children. Zanco J Med Sci. 2017;18(56):1-11.

Wells A. Cognition about cognition: Metacognitive therapy and change in generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia. Cogn Behav Pract. 2007;14(1):18-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.01.005.

Wells A. The Metacognitive Model of GAD: Assessment of Meta-Worry and Relationship With DSM-IV Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Cognit Ther Res. 2005;29(1):107-21. doi: 10.1007/s10608-005-1652-0.

Wilks CR, Valenstein-Mah H, Tran H, King AMM, Lungu A, Linehan MM. Dialectical behavior therapy skills for families of individuals with behavioral disorders: Initial feasibility and outcomes. Cogn Behav Pract. 2017;24(3):288-95. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2016.06.004.

Kleiber BV, Felder JN, Ashby B, Scott S, Dean J, Dimidjian S. Treating depression among adolescent perinatal women with a dialectical behavior therapy–informed skills group. Cogn Behav Pract. 2017;24(4):416-27. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2016.12.002.

Linehan MM, Dimeff LA, Reynolds SK, Comtois KA, Welch SS, Heagerty P, et al. Dialectical behavior therapy versus comprehensive validation therapy plus 12-step for the treatment of opioid dependent women meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;67(1):13-26.

Neacsiu AD, Rizvi SL, Linehan MM. Dialectical behavior therapy skills use as a mediator and outcome of treatment for borderline personality disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2010;48(9):832-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.05.017.

Wagner AW, Rizvi SL, Harned MS. Applications of dialectical behavior therapy to the treatment of complex trauma-related problems: when one case formulation does not fit all. J Trauma Stress. 2007;20(4):391-400. doi: 10.1002/jts.20268.

Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56(6):893-7.

Kaviani H, Mousavi AS. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Tehran University Medical Journal. 2008;66(2):136-40. [Persian].

McEvoy PM, Erceg-Hurn DM, Anderson RA, Campbell BN, Swan A, Saulsman LM, et al. Group metacognitive therapy for repetitive negative thinking in primary and non-primary generalized anxiety disorder: an effectiveness trial. J Affect Disord. 2015;175:124-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.046.

Normann N, van Emmerik AA, Morina N. The efficacy of metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Depress Anxiety. 2014;31(5):402- 11. doi: 10.1002/da.22273.

Ashoori J. The effects of meta-cognitive therapy on generalized anxiety disorder and depression among patients with type II diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Nursing .2015;3(2):19-29.

Rees CS, van Koesveld KE. An open trial of group metacognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2008;39(4):451-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.11.004.

Valizade M, Hasanvandi S, Honarmand MM, Afkar A. Effectiveness of Group Metacognitive Therapy for Student’s Metacognitive Beliefs and Anxiety. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2013;84:1555-8. doi: 10.1016/j. sbspro.2013.06.787.

Azimi M, Shakeri M, Nori R, Hatami M. Effectiveness of metacognitive therapy (MCT) on reducing test anxiety and changing the metacognitive beliefs of the eleventh and twelfth grade students. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. 2014;6(3):591-600. doi: 10.29252/jnkums.6.3.591. [Persian].

Bahadori MH, Jahanbakhsh M, Kajbaf MB, Faramarzi S. The effectiveness of meta-cognitive therapy on meta-cognitive beliefs and cognitive trust in patients with social phobia disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2012;4(1):33-41.

Behpajouh A, Besharat M, Ghobari B, Fooladi F. The effect of teaching cognitive-behavioral strategies on reducing test anxiety among high school girl students. Journal of Psychology & Education. 2009;39(1):3-21. [Persian].

Kroger C, Schweiger U, Sipos V, Arnold R, Kahl KG, Schunert T, et al. Effectiveness of dialectical behaviour therapy for borderline personality disorder in an inpatient setting. Behav Res Ther. 2006;44(8):1211-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.08.012.

van den Bosch LM, Verheul R, Schippers GM, van den Brink W. Dialectical Behavior Therapy of borderline patients with and without substance use problems. Implementation and long-term effects. Addict Behav. 2002;27(6):911-23.

Montazernia B, Mirzaian B, Akhi O, Yadollahi S. The effectiveness of dialectical behavioral therapy-based skills training on signs of state and trait anxiety in patients with type II diabetes. Journal of Modern Psychological Researches. 2018;10(37):153-68. [Persian].

Hajializadeh K, Norizadeh B. The effectiveness of dialectical behavioral therapy on reducing anxiety and improving social functioning of patients with diabetes. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Lipid Disorders. 2018;17(3):130-8. [Persian].

Mami S, Ebrahimian S, Soltany S. Effectiveness of dialectic behavioral therapy on depression, anxiety and stress in anorexia nervosa disorder: Four case study. The Journal of Urmia University Medical Sciences. 2016;27(5):384-92. [Persian].

Miller AL, Rathus JH, Linehan MM. Dialectical behavior therapy with suicidal adolescents. New York: Guilford Press; 2006.

Galle Girian S, Deireh E. Comparison of the Effect of Metacognitive Therapy and Attachment-Based Therapy on Externalizing Problems in Aggressive Children. Quarterly Journal of Child Mental Health. 2017;4(1):24- 34. [Persian].


  • There are currently no refbacks.