Neurocysticercosis, is the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium. It is considered as the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in countries with poor economy , but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently worldwide. During the past decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have led to more accurate diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients. This article is a review about the current data about neurocysticercosis, including recent diagnostics and treatment developments.
: Del Brutto OH, Santibanez R, Noboa CA, et al. Epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis: analysis of 203 patients. Neurology 1992;42:389–92.
: Tsang V, Wilson M, 1995. Taenia solium cysticercosis, an under-recognized but serious public health problem. Parasitol Today 11: 124–126.
: Commission on Tropical Diseases of the International League against Epilepsy. Relationship between epilepsy and tropical diseases. Epilepsia 1994;35:89–93.
: Medina MT, DeGiorgio C. Introduction to neurocysticercosis: a worldwide epidemic. Neurosurg Focus 2002;12:6.
: Garcia, H. H., and O. H. Del Brutto. 2000. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 14:97–119.
: Garcia, H. H., and S. M. Martinez. 1999. Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, 2nd ed. Universo, Lima, Peru.
: K. Hutcheson III, M. Kalafian, I. Taylor, J. Sagel and B. Clyburn, “Neurocysticercosis,” Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 7, 2000, pp. 666-668.
: M. T. Wallin and J. F. Kurtzke, “Neurocysticercosis in the United States: Review of an Important Emerging In- fection,” Neurology, Vol. 63, No. 9, 2004, pp. 1559-1564.
: Fleury A, García JM, Aguerrebere PV, et al. Neurocysticercosis, a persisting health problem in Mexico. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2010;4(8, article e805).
: Z. Farahani, A. Moradi, A. Sedighi and M. Soleimani, "Neurocysticercosis in Iran: An Unexpected Case and Literature Review," Neuroscience & Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 189-193.
: Flisser A: Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium. Prog Clin Parasitol 4:77-116, 1994.
: García HH, Gonzalez AE, Evans CAW, Gilman RH. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Lancet. 2003 Aug 16; 362(9383): 547–555.
: O. H. Del Brutto, J. Sotelo, “Neurocysticercosis: An Up-date,” Clinical Infectious Disease, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1988, pp. 1075-1087.
: Del Brutto OH, Sotelo J, Román G. Neurocysticercosis: A Clinical Handbook. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger; 1988.
: Gonzalez AE, Lopez-Urbina T, Tsang B, et al. Transmission dynamics of Taenia solium and potential for pig-to-pig transmission.Parasitology International. 2006;55:S131–S135.
: Brailsford, J. F. 1941. Cysticercus cellulosae-Its radiographic detection in the musculature and the central nervous system. Br. J. Radiol. XIV:79–93.
: Yoshino, K. 1933. Studies on the postembryonal development of Taenia solium: III. On the development of cysticercus cellulosae within the definitive intermediate host. J. Med. Assoc. Formosa 32:166–169.
: J. G. Burneo, I. Plener and H. H. Garcia, “Neurocysticer- cosis in a Patient in Canada,” CMAJ, Vol. 180, No. 6, 2009, pp. 639-642.
: Fleury A, Escobar A, Fragoso G, et al. Clinical heterogeneity of human neurocysticercosis results from complex interactions among parasite, host and environmental factors. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2010;104:243-250.
: Carabin H, Ndimubanzi PC, Budke CM, et al. Clinical manifestations associated with neurocysticercosis: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2011;5:e1152.
: Takayanagui OM, Odashima NS. Clinical aspects of neurocysticercosis. Parasitol Int 2006;55 Suppl:S111-S115.
: Pal DK, Carpio A, Sander JW. Neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in developing countries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:137-143.
: H. H. Garcia, R. Gilman, M. Martinez, et al., “Cysticer-cosis as a Major Cause of Epilepsy in Peru. The Cysti-cercosis Working Group in Peru (CWG),” Lancet, Vol. 341, No. 8839, 1993, pp. 197-200.
: Garcia HH, Del Brutto OH. Neurocysticercosis: updated concepts about an old disease. The Lancet Neurology.2005;4(10):653–661.
: Nash TE, Del Brutto OH, Butman JA, et al. Calcified neurocysticercosis and epileptoenesis. Neuroloy. 2004;62:1934–1938.
: Nash TE, Pretell EJ, Lescano AG, et al. Perilesional brain oedema and seizure activity in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis: a prospective cohort and nested case-control study. The Lancet Neurology. 2008;7(12):1099–1105.
: Escobar, A. 1983. The pathology of neurocysticercosis, p. 27–54. In E. Palacios, J. Rodriguez-Carbajal, and J. M. Taveras (ed.), Cysticercosis of the central nervous system. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.
: Flisser, A., D. Gonzalez, M. Shkurovich, I. Madrazo, D. Correa, J. Rodriguez- Carbajal, S. Cohen, E. Rodriguez-del-Rosal, M. Collado, B. Fernandez, et al. 1990. Praziquantel treatment of porcine brain and muscle Taenia solium cysticercosis. 1. Radiological, physiological and histopathological studies. Parasitol. Res. 76:263–269.
: Trelles, J. O., and L. Trelles. 1978. Cysticercosis of the nervous system, p. 291–320. In P. J. Wynken and G. W. Bruyn (ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology. North-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
: Vasconcelos, D. 1990. Del quiste al granuloma cisticercoso mediante tomografia craneal computarizada. Gac. Med. Mex. 126:401–404.
: Kramer, L. D., G. E. Locke, S. E. Byrd, and J. Daryabagi. 1989. Cerebral cysticercosis: documentation of natural history with CT. Radiology 171: 459–462.
: Dumas, J. L., J. M. Vusy, and C. Belin. 1997. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow up and staging by MRI. Neuroradiology 39:12–16.
: Del Brutto OH, Wadia NH, Dumas M, et al. Proposal of diagnostic criteria for human cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Sci 1996;142:1–6.
: Shah GV. Central nervous system tuberculosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2000;10:355–74.
: Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Case 39-1996. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1906–14.
: Garg RK. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. Neurology 2002;58:1315.
: Singh G. Neurocysticercosis in South-Central America and the Indian subcontinent. A comparative evaluation. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 1997;55:349–56.
: Garg RK. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis: some modifications are needed for Indian patients. Neurol India 2004;52:171–7.
: Wadia RS, Makhale CN, Kelkar AN, et al. Focal epilepsy in India with special reference to lesions showing ring or disc like enhancement on contrast computed tomography. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987;50:1298–301.
: Nash TE, Neva FA. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral cysticercosis. N Engl J Med 1984;311:1492–6.
: Salazar A, Sotelo J, Martinez H, et al. Differential diagnosis between ventriculitis and fourth ventricle cyst in neurocysticercosis. J Neurosurg 1983;59:660–3.
: Couldwell WT, Chandrasoma P, Apuzzo MLJ, et al. Third ventricular cysticercal cyst mimicking a colloid cyst: case report. Neurosurg 1995;37:1200–3.
: Meneses MS, Arruda WO, Ramina R. Third ventricular cysticercal cyst mimicking a colloid cyst: case report. Neurosurg 1996;39:623.
: Jayasundar R, Singh VP, Raghunathan P, et al. Inflammatory-granulomas: evaluation with proton MRS. NMR Biomed 1999;12:139–44.
: Martinez HR, Rangel-Guerra R, Elizondo G, et al. MR imaging in neurocysticercosis: a study of 56 cases. Am J Neuroradiol 1989;10:1011–9.
: Jena A, Sanchatee PC, Gupta RK, et al. Cysticercosis of the brain shown by magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Radiol 1998;39:542–6.
: Suss RA, Maravilla KR, Thompson J. MR imaging of intracranial cysticercosis: comparison with CT and anatomopathologic features. Am J Neuroradiol 1986;7:235–42.
: Ginier BL, Poirier VC. MR imaging of intraventricular cysticercosis. Am J Neuroradiol 1992;13:1247–8.
: Proano JV, Madrazo I, Garcia L, et al. Albendazole and praziquantel treatment in neurocysticercosis of fourth ventricle. J Neurosurg 1997;87:33.
: O. H. Del Brutto, V. Rajshekhar, A. C. White Jr., et al., “Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Neurocysticercosis,” Neurology, Vol. 57, No. 2, 2001, pp. 177-183.
: J. A. Serpa, A. Moran, J. C. Goodman, T. P. Giordano, and A. C. White Jr, “Neurocysticercosis in the HIV Era: A Case Report and Review of the Literature,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 77, No. 1, 2007, pp. 113-117.
: S. Remy, MSN, RN, CEN and Vineland, “A 44-Year-Old Man with Neurocysticercosis,” Journal of Emergency Nursing, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2009, pp. 348-349.
: A. Carpio, “Neurocysticercosis: An Update,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 2, No. 12, 2002, pp. 751-762.
: H. H. García, A. E. Gonzalez, C. A. Evans and R. H. Gilman, “Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Taenia solium Cysticercosis,” Lancet, Vol. 362, No. 9383, 2003, pp. 547-556.
: J. E. Pittella, “Neurocysticercosis,” Brain Pathology, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1997, pp. 681-693.
: Tsang VCW, Brand JA, Boyer AE. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay and glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis (Taenia solium) Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1989;159(1):50–59.
: Mahanty S, Garcia HH. Cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis as pathogens affecting the nervous system. Progress in Neurobiology.2010;91(2):172–184.
: Gilman RH, Del Brutto OH, García HH, Martínez M. Prevalence of taeniosis among patients with neurocysticercosis is related to severity of infection. Neurology. 2000;55(7):p. 1062.
: García HH, Del Brutto OH. Heavy nonencephalitic cerebral cysticercosis in tapeworm carriers. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Perú Neurology. 1999;53(7):1582–1584.
: García HH, Evans CAW, Nash TE, et al. Current consensus guidelines for treatment of neurocysticercosis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2002;15(4):747–756.
: Nash TE, Singh G, White AC, et al. Treatment of neurocysticercosis: current status and future research needs.Neurology. 2006;67(7):1120–1127.
: A Seddighi, ME Akbari, AS Seddighi, E Pirayesh, MM Soleymani, HR Baqdashti, A Nikouei, et al. Radioguided surgery using gamma detection probe technology for resection of cerebral glioma. Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 18(Suppl):68-75, 2015.
: C. M. DeGiorgio, M. T. Medina, R. Durón , C. Zee and S. P. Escueta, “Neurocysticercosis,” Epilepsy Currents, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2004, pp. 107-111.
: Del Brutto OH, Campos X, Sánchez J, Mosquera A. Single-day praziquantel versus 1-week albendazole for neurocysticercosis.Neurology. 1999;52(5):1079–1081.
: Pretell EJ, García HH, Gilman RH, Saavedra H, Martinez M. Failure of one-day praziquantel treatment in patients with multiple neurocysticercosis lesions. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery.2001;103(3):175–177.
: Garcia HH, Gilman RH, Horton J, et al. Albendazole therapy for neurocysticercosis: a prospective double-blind trial comparing 7 versus 14 days of treatment. Neurology. 1997;48(5):1421–1427.
: Bustos JA, Pretell EJ, Llanos-Zavalaga F, Gilman RH, Del Brutto OH, Garcia HH. Efficacy of a 3-day course of albendazole treatment in patients with a single neurocysticercosis cyst. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 2006;108(2):193–194.
: R. Kelley, D. H. Duong and G. E. Locke, “Characteristics of Ventricular Shunt Malfunctions among Patients with Neurocysticercosis,” Neurosurgery, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2002, pp. 757-762.
: Tabatabaei SM, Sedighi A. EVALUATION OF THE ETIOLOGY OF SHUNT REVISIONS IN HYDROCEPHALUS SHUNTED PATIENTS IN SHOHADA HOSPITAL. Journal of medical Council of IRI. 20 (4), 252-260.
: Masoumi N, Bastani D, Najarian S, Ganji F, Farmanzad F, Seddighi AS. Mathematical modeling of CSF pulsatile hydrodynamics based on fluid-solid interaction. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2010 Jun;57(6):1255-63.
: M. Bergsneider, L. T. Holly, J. H. Lee, W. A. King and J. G. Frazee, “Endoscopic Management of Cysticercal cysts within the Lateral and Third Ventricles,” Journal of Neu-rosurgery, Vol. 92, No. 1, 2000, pp. 14-23.