Characteristics of Double-J Stent Encrustations and Factors Associated with their Development
23 February 2021
Purpose: To evaluate the chemical composition of double-J stent encrustation and to assess risk factors associated with their development.
Materials and Methods: Patients who had double-J stents removed between July 2016 and June 2017 were recruited for this study prospectively. The clinical features of the patients were recorded and the composition of encrustation material was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy.
Results: Encrustments from a total of 372 double-J stents was collected. The mean age of patients was 50.4±13.1 years and deposits possible to analyze were obtained from 228 males (61.3%) and 144 females (38.7%). Calcium oxalate monohydrate was the most common constituent of stone and encrustments. The encrustation rate of vesical coils was significantly higher than that of renal coils (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in chemical composition between stone and encrustation regarding renal (P=0.086) and vesical coils (P=0.072). The only predictive risk factor for development of encrustation on double-J stents was indwelling time. This phenomenon was observed in both renal (P<0.001) and vesical coils (P=0.021). Interestingly, patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with less risk of encrustation on both renal (P<0.001) and vesical coils (P=0.001).
Conclusion: The chemical composition of double-J stent encrustation was the same as the urinary stone. The prevention strategy for stone composition is also suitable for the prevention of encrustation of double-J stent. The only predictive factor for double-J stent encrustation was the indwelling time. CKD patient was shown to be less risk for the development of encrustation.
- Ureteral stent; encrustation; chemical composition; urolithiasis; renal coil; vesical coil
How to Cite
2. Finney RP (1978) Experience with new double J ureteral catheter stent. J Urol 120(6):678-81.
3. Borboroglu PG, Kane CJ (2000) Current management of severely encrusted ureteral stents with a large associated stone burden. J Urol 164(3 Pt 1):648-50.
4. Fiuk J, Bao Y, Calleary JG, Schwartz BF, Denstedt JD (2015) The use of internal stents in chronic ureteral obstruction. J Urol 193(4):1092-100.
5. Lange D, Bidnur S, Hoag N, Chew BH (2015) Ureteral stent-associated complications--where we are and where we are going. Nat Rev Urol 12(1):17-25.
6. Sighinolfi MC, Sighinolfi GP, Galli E, Micali S, Ferrari N, Mofferdin A, Bianchi G (2015) Chemical and Mineralogical Analysis of Ureteral Stent Encrustation and Associated Risk Factors. Urology 86(4):703-6.
7. Venkatesan N, Shroff S, Jeyachandran K, Doble M (2011) Effect of uropathogens on in vitro encrustation of polyurethane double J ureteral stents. Urol Res 39(1):29-37.
8. Pais VM Jr, Chew B, Shaw O, Hyams ES, Matlaga B, Venkatesh R, Page J, Paterson RF, Arsovska O, Kurtz M, Eisner BH (2014) Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for removal of encrusted ureteral stents: a multicenter study. J Endourol 28(10):1188-91.
9. Chew BH, Denstedt JD (2004) Technology insight: novel ureteral stent materials and designs. Nat Clin Pract Urol 1(1):44-48.
10.Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al (2009) A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 150(9):604-12.
11. Grignon A, Filion R, Filiatrault D, Robitaille P, Homsy Y, Boutin H, Leblond R (1986) Urinary tract dilation in utero: classification and clinical applications. Radiology 160(3):645-647.
12. Liu Y, Yasheng A, Chen K, Lan C, Tusong H, Ou L, Liang Y, Tiselius HG, Zeng G, Wu W (2017) Difference in urinary stone composition between Uyghur and Han children with urolithiasis. Urolithiasis 45(5):435-440.
13. Huang J, Tusong H, Batuer A, Tuerxun A, Tiselius HG, Wu W (2019) High prevalence of pediatric urinary tract stones in Xinjiang Uyghur. Urolithiasis 47(3):265-272.
14. Sancaktutar AA, Tepeler A, Söylemez H, Penbegül N, Atar M, Bozkurt Y, Yıldırım K (2012) A solution for medical and legal problems arising from forgotten ureteral stents: initial results from a reminder short message service (SMS). Urol Res 40(3):253-8.
15. Eisenberg ML, Lee KL, Stoller ML (2009) Endoscopic management of retained renal foreign bodies. Urology 73(6):1189-94.
16. Craver L, Marco MP, Martínez I, Rue M, Borràs M, Martín ML, Sarró F, Valdivielso JM, Fernández E (2007) Mineral metabolism parameters throughout chronic kidney disease stages 1-5--achievement of K/DOQI target ranges. Nephrol Dial Transplant 22(4):1171-6.
17. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ (2001) Twenty-four-hour urine chemistries and the risk of kidney stones among women and men. Kidney Int 59(6):2290-8.
18. Daudon M, Doré JC, Jungers P, Lacour B (2004) Changes in stone composition according to age and gender of patients: a multivariate epidemiological approach. Urol Res 32(3):241-7.
19. Marangella M, Bruno M, Cosseddu D, Manganaro M, Tricerri A, Vitale C, Linari F (1990) Prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in the course of idiopathic recurrent calcium stone disease: risk factors and patterns of progression. Nephron 54(4):302-6.
20. Rouprêt M, Daudon M, Hupertan V, Gattegno B, Thibault P, Traxer O (2005) Can ureteral stent encrustation analysis predict urinary stone composition? Urology 66(2):246-51.
21. Bariol S, Farebrother T, Ruthven S, MacNeil F (2003) Comparison of urinary stone and stent encrustation: biochemical analysis. J Endourol 17(9):741-3.
22. Venkatesan N, Shroff S, Jeyachandran K, Doble M (2011) Effect of uropathogens on in vitro encrustation of polyurethane double J ureteral stents. Urol Res 39(1):29-37.
- Abstract Viewed: 0 times
- Just Accepted/6578 Downloaded: 0 times