Utility of Urine Interleukines in Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux and Renal Parenchymal Damage
5 January 2019
Purpose: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the most common risk factor of urinary tract infection in children. Currently, diagnosis of VUR depends on invasive imaging studies, with high radiologic burden. Therefore, different biomarkers have been introduced for evaluation of these patients.The objective of this study was to identify alteration of urinary interleukins (ILs) excretion in children with primary VUR and renal parenchymal damage, for further clinical application.
Materials and methods: Urinary concentrations of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were evaluated in 34 children with VUR (cases) and 36 without VUR (control), during 2018-2019. Urinary concentrations of IL-1, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured, using polyclonal antibody ELISA kit, and standardized to urine creatinine (Cr).
Patients with infectious or inflammatory disorders, urolithiasis, immune deficiency, acute or chronic kidney disease, and secondary VUR were excluded from the study.
Results: Mean age of cases (36.00±27.66) had no significant difference with the control (32.86±29.31) group (p=0.44). The majority of patients had moderate VUR (58.8%), followed by severe (35.3%) and mild (5.9%) grades. Urinary concentration of all ILs/Cr were significantly higher in patients with VUR, compared with those without VUR. There was no significant correlation between urine ILs/Cr with age, gender, serum electrolytes, urine specific gravity, renal ultrasound, laterality or severity of VUR, and DMSA renal scan.
All urine ILs/Cr had acceptable sensitivity and accuracy for workup of children with primary VUR.
Conclusion: Urine IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8/Cr were sensitive and accurate additionary screening biomarkers in children with primary VUR.
- vesicoureteral reflux
- renal damage
How to Cite
Ninan GK, Jutley RS, Eremin O. Urinary cytokines as markers of reflux nephropathy. J Urol. 1999; 162:1739-42.
Galanakis E, Bitsori M, Dimitriou H, Giannakopoulou C, Karkavitsas NS, Kalmanti M. Urine interleukin-8 as a marker of vesicoureteral reflux in infants. Pediatrics. 2006; 117: e863-7.
Badeli H, khoshnevis T, Hassanzadeh Rad A, Sadeghi M. Urinary albumin and interleukin-8 levels are not good indicators of ongoing vesicoureteral reflux in children who have no active urinary tract infection. Arab J Nephrol Transplant. 2013; 6:27-30.
Bitsori M, Karatzi M, Dimitriou H, Christakou E, Savvidou A, Galanakis E. Urine IL-8 concentrations in infectious and non-infectious urinary tract conditions. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011; 26: 2003-7.
Gokce I, Alpay H, Biyikli N, Unluguzel G, Dede F, Topuzoglu A. Urinary levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin 8 in patients with vesicoureteral reflux and renalparenchymal scar. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010; 25: 905-12.
Sheu JN, Chen MC, Cheng SL, Lee IC, Chen SM, Tsay GJ. Urine interleukin-1beta in children with acute pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Nephrology (Carlton). 2007; 12: 487-93.
Tramma D, Hatzistylianou M, Gerasimou G, Lafazanis V. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels in the urine of children with renal scarring. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012; 27: 1525-30.
Wang J, Konda R, Sato H, Sakai K, Ito S, Orikasa S. Clinical significance of urinary interleukin-6 in children with reflux nephropathy. J Urol. 2001; 165: 210-4.
Renata Y, Jassar H, Katz R, Hochberg A, Nir RR, Klein-Kremer A. Urinary concentration of cytokines in children with acute pyelonephritis. Eur J Pediatr. 2013; 172: 769-74.
Merrikhi AR, Keivanfar M, Gheissari A, Mousavinasab F. Urine interlukein-8 as a diagnostic test for vesicoureteral reflux in children. J Pak Med Assoc. 2012; 20-12; 62 (3 Suppl 2): S52-4.
Sheu JN, Chen MC, Lue KH et al. Serum and urine levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis. Cytokine. 2006; 36: 276-82.
Benson M, Jodal U, Agace W et al. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in children with febrile urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria. J Infect Dis. 1996; 174: 1080-4.
Haraoka M, Senoh K, Ogata N, Furukawa M, Matsumoto T, Kumazawa J. Elevated interleukin-8 levels in the urine of children with renal scarring and/or vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol. 1996; 155: 678-80.
Fernández Córdoba MS, Gonzálvez Piñera J, Juncos Tobarra MA et al. Utility of urine levels of interleukins in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux: a case-control study in children. Cir Pediatr. 2012; 25: 46-52.
Krzemień G, Roszkowska-Blaim M, Kostro I et al . Urinary levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in children with urinary tractinfections to age 2. Med Sci Monit. 2004; 10: CR593-7. Epub 2004 Oct 26.
Tullus K, Escobar-Billing R, Fituri O et al. Interleukin-1a and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in the urine of children with acute pyelonephritis and relation to renal scarring. Acta Paediatr. 1996; 85: 158–62
Tullus K, Fituri O, Linné T et al. Urine interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis, in relation to DMSA scintigraphy in the acute phase and at 1-year follow-up. Pediatr Radiol. 1994; 24:513-5.
- Abstract Viewed: 0 times
- Just Accepted/5957 Downloaded: 0 times