Original Article

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among Women Referring to Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Hamadan, Iran

Masoud Hamidi, Mahdi Khulojini, Reza Azizian, Hamed Bashiri, Alireza Ahanchian, Mehran Babanejad, Hatef Khayat-Salighehdar, Nayebali Ahmadi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015), 1 February 2015 , Page 1-5

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of this study was investigate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among young women who referred to check up for toxoplasmosis attended in Shahid Beheshti hospital, Hamadan during 2013-2014.

Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 2523 pregnant women who referred to laboratory of Shahid Beheshti hospital in Hamadan province (western of Iran) during 2013-2014. Age, level of education and place of residence were recorded in the relevant forms. Antibodies serum levels for all samples were examined by ELISA. IgG titer equals and more than 1:200 was presumed as seropositive. Data were analyzed using by SPSS version 19.0 software.

Results: 26.1% of IgG seropositive persons were city residents while 32.3% of them lived at village and suburb of city. 1.4% and 1.1% of at risk persons (based on IgG titration) were city and village residents, respectively. 1.3% and 1.9% of IgM seropositives were city and village residents, respectively. The percentage of at risk persons of city and village (based on IgM titration) were 0.3% and 0.6%, in a row. 29.7% of IgG seropositives did not have academic education while 30.4% of them graduated from high school, at least. The seropositive IgM percentage of non-academic educated persons and graduated/academic ones were 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively.

Conclusion: Our funding indicates the association between age of women and their level of education with percentage of contamination and prevalence. IgM seropositive is lesser than IgG. It means that toxoplasmosis is chronic or there is previous contact. To avoid the risk of toxoplasmosis infection particularly in pregnant women should be examined and the necessary preventive measures and training for young women should be presented.

Correlation between Methylation and Expression Level of P15 and P16 Genes during Differentiation of Cord Blood Stem Cells into Erythroid Lineage Mediated by Erythropoietin

Mehdi Azad, Mehdi Goudarzi, Mehdi Sahmani, Ali Dehghanifard, Naser Mobarra, Mousa Vatanmakanian, Mohammad Hosein Moghaddasi, Fatemeh Skandari, Saeid Kaviani

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015), 1 February 2015 , Page 6-12

Background: Several influential factors such as transcription factors and intracellular signaling components are involved in differentiation of stem cells into a specific lineage. P15 and p16 proteins are among these factors. Accumulating evidences has introduced the epigenetic as a master regulator of these factors during lineage specification. The main objective of this study is to determine the correlation between the expression level and methylation pattern of P15 and P16 genes in erythroid lineage after in vitro differentiation by erythropoietin (EPO).

Materials and Methods: The purified and expanded CD34+ cord blood stem cells were differentiated into erythroid lineage in the presence of EPO. DNA was isolated from both cord blood stem cells and differentiated cells. The Real-Time PCR performed using cDNA and the isolated DNA was used in methylation Specific PCR (MSP) reaction for methylation pattern analysis in both pre and post differentiation stages.

Results: The study demonstrated that P15 and P16 genes have partial methylation after erythroid differentiation by EPO. The Expression of P15 gene was higher after differentiation and the expression of P16 gene had a slightly decreased level in post differentiation stage.

Conclusion: Significant increase in P15 gene expression after differentiation to erythroid lineage, suggests the remarkable efficacy of this gene in erythroid function. According to upregulation of P15 gene after differentiation despite unchanged methylation status and slight down regulation of P16 gene with slight hyper-methylation of the gene it can be suggested that although the methylation can affects the expression level of P16 gene, the P15 gene is not affected by this mechanism during erythroid differentiation mediated by EPO.

Amblyopia Treatment Knowledge Cognition of Iranian Practitioners in 2012.

Zhale Rajavi, masoumeh kalantarion, Bahareh Kheiri, Shadi Akbarian, Pegah Farzam

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015), 1 February 2015 , Page 13-19

Background: Amblyopia is considered as one of the most prevalent vision problems in pediatrics age (1-5%). Recently, new methods in amblyopia treatment were reported in Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS’).The objective of this study was to recognize amblyopia treatment knowledge of Iranian ophthalmologists and optometrists which are responsible for amblyopia treatment in our and other countries.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed during the Iranian Society of Ophthalmology annual meeting in Tehran in 2012 through questionnaire containing demographic information and 20 closed-answer questions based on ATS results. The questions were classified into seven categories and the sum of correct scores was 100. Optometrists and pediatric ophthalmologists were considered as the group 1 (153 participants), other practitioners (general ophthalmologists and other subspecialists) were regarded as the group 2 (256 participants). Criteria for inadequate, fair and good knowledge were considered by scores of < 50, 50 to 70, and >70 respectively.

Results: Overall, 409 out of a total of 600 questionnaires were completed (response rate: 68.1%).  Mean scores of the group 1 were significantly higher than the group 2 in all 7 categories of questions and in 5 of them the differences were statistically significant. The worst and best scores were related to prescription of atropine (12%) and visual acuity improvement with glasses alone (93%), respectively. Scores for other questions were about 50%. There was no relationship between practice status and the number of referral amblyopic cases per week with the level of knowledge. In all categories except prescription of Atropine and recurrence, mean scores of females were more than the male participants.

Conclusion: knowledge about amblyopia therapy seems to be overall inadequate and should be improved by more education. We suggest paying more attention to new modified methods of amblyopia treatment and increased discussion of such method in annual and CME meetings.

Reporting of T4 Genotype of Acanthamoeba Isolates in Recreational Water Sources of Gilan Province, Northern Iran

Maryam Niyyati, Mahdieh Nazar, Zohreh lasjerdi, Ali Haghighi, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015), 1 February 2015 , Page 20-24

Background: Acanthamoeba spp. is the causative agent of blindness keratitis and fatal encephalaitis. Presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in a wide variety of niches such as different water types can lead to exposure of high risk people such as contact lens wearers. The main aim of the present study was to explore the occurrence of Acanthamoeba genotypes in the recreational water sources using both morphological and molecular approaches in Gilan province, Iran.

Materials and Methods: Overall, 50 samples were collected from recreational water sources including man- made and natural waters in Gilan province. Filtration and cultivation of samples was performed using non-nutrient agar. Cloning of Acanthamoeba spp. was done to eliminate bacterial and fungi contamination. PCR amplification and sequencing were performed using genus-specific primer pair. Genotype identification was based on homology analysis of 18S rRNA gene (DF3) of the obtained sequences with the available genes in the gene bank data base.

Results: Out of 50 water samples, 15 (30%) were positive for Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts according to morphological criteria. Cloning of 13 isolates (26%) was done successfully. Molecular analysis of 13 Acanthamoeba strain revealed that all isolates were belonged to potentially pathogenic T4 genotype.

Conclusion: T4 genotype is the main cause of Acanthamoeba-related infections. Presence of Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 genotype in recreational water sources is of concern for high risk people. Alarming sign and education to high risk people is of utmost importance to prevent such infections.

Mycoplasma Infection in Pyospermic Infertile and Healthy Fertile Men

Farnoosh Safavifar, Mojgan Bandehpour, Seyed Jalil Hosseiny, Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Bahram Kazemi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015), 1 February 2015 , Page 25-29

Background: Infections are one of the correctable causes of infertility with low cost and cost effective treatment. The 50% of infertile cases is related to men in some way, and 30% of them are absolutely related to them. Mycoplasmas are the smallest microorganisms with capability of DNA replication. Present study is planned to compare the mycoplasma infection in infertile men and men with established fertility.

Materials and Methods: 45 Semen samples were collected from case and control persons who reffered to Royan Infertility and Fertility Institute between 2004 and 2005 and stored in -20°C until time of test. DNA was extracted from semen using phenol chloroform. PCR reaction was done by mycoplasma specific primers.

Results: Mycoplasma genitalium gene was amplified in 6 (40%) cases from 15 infertile semen samples and 11 (36.6%) from 30 control semen samples.

Conclusion: Probability of genital infection, at least, in these studies group, is very lower than other communities' reports.

Treatment of Recurrent Corneal Epithelial Defect by Autologous Serum Eye Drop

Hossein Mohammad Rabei, Ghazal Norouzi, Kourosh Sheibani

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015), 1 February 2015 , Page 30-32

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of autologous serum eye drop in treatment of recurrent corneal epithelial defect.

Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with recurrent corneal epithelial defect were studied. Autologous serum was prepared from the patients and diluted in 20% normal saline. The patients were instructed to use the autologous serum every six hours. Patients were followed for a mean period of 18 months.

Results: Four males (28.6%) and 10 females (71.4%) entered the study. Four patients stopped the treatment after three months with complete satisfaction from treatment. Patients reported a reduction in frequency and severity of attacks 4.6±2 weeks after the start of treatment. The mean number of attacks before the procedure was 7.6±0.9 per year which was reduced to 2.2±0.9 per year after treatment (p<0.001). The main side effects in patients were eye pruritus and redness which were well tolerated by patients.

Conclusion: Autologous serum application seems to be a safe and effective method to treat recurrent corneal epithelial defect.

Comparison of the Effect of Recaldent and Xylitol on the Amounts of Salivary Streptococcus Mutans

Shila Emamieh, Hossein Goudarzi, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Yosra Khaterizadeh

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015), 1 February 2015 , Page 33-37


Background:Dental caries is associated with oral pathogenes and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans)is one of the primary cariogenic organisms. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of sugar free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP) and Xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutan.


Materials and Methods: 60 dental students, who volunteered after signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A) Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP, (B) Chewing gum containing Xylitol. Subjects within the experimental groups chewed gum for 20 minutes, three times a day after meals for 3 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention unstimulated saliva samples were quantified for Streptococcus mutans count.


Results: A statistically significant reduction (p<0.05) of salivary S. mutans was displayed in both groups A and B after the intervention. When results compared with baseline, and group A shows more statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans than group B.

Conclusion: In conclusion, daily chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and xylitol reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way, but chewing gum containing CPP-ACP can reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way than Xylitol chewing gum.

Introduction and aims: Acinetobacter baumannii in recent decay has become an increasing concern in hospitals for its ability to acquire antibiotic resistance determinants rapidly and becoming resistant to almost all of the antibiotic classes. Borage (Echium amoenum  Fisch. et Mey), is a wild annual plant of Boraginaceae family, grows in northern mountains of Iran and has largely been used by Iranian folk as a mood enhancer, anti anxiolytic, anti inflammatory, a laxative, an emollients and also it has been used  for treatment of infectious diseases. So, in this study the methanolic extract of dried flowers of Echium amoenom were tested against the isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from wound of burn patients.

Materials and methods: 30 drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains which were isolated from burn wounds at the Motahari hospital of Tehran were selected. Antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract was evaluated by the disc diffusion method based on CLSI protocol 2012

Results: The mean diameter of the inhibition zone for different extracts  were; 9.967±6.139 mm at the concentration of 4000 ppm, at the concentration of 400 ppm 13.37±5.45 mm, 13.53±5.49 mm at the concentration of 200 ppm, 14.77±5.17mm  at the concentration of 100 ppm and 14.13±5.7806mm  at the concentration of 50 ppm.

Conclusion: clinical strains of the A. baumannii were almost highly resistant to imipenem which is the common choice of antibiotic therapy in the hospitals. Due to the calculated p value ≤ 0.05 in this study, it can say that borage extract can be as good as or even better than the imipenem which is used in the hospitals now.

Comparison of an Italian Chart with an Iranian Chart in Visual Acuity Measurement

Haleh Kangari, Alireza Akbarzadeh Bagheban, Atiyeh Khomamizadeh, Saeed Rahmani

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015), 1 February 2015 , Page 43-47

Background: Taking visual acuity is an important part of an eye routine examination. This study was conducted to compare visual acuity measured using an Iranian digital tumbling E chart with visual acuity measured using an Italian digital tumbling E chart as a familiar foreign chart.Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 200 participants (400 eyes; healthy n=40, glaucoma n=40, retinal disorders n=40, post lasik n=40, corneal n=40) with mean age 44.28 years. Visual acuity of both eyes of half of the subjects (n=100, n=20 from each group), was first measured using the Italian digital chart and then measured using Iranian digital chart. Visual acuity of the rest of subjects (n=100, n=200 from each group) was first measured using the Iranian digital chart and then measured using the Italian digital chart. Measured visual acuities were recorded in logMAR notation.Results: The mean of the Iranian and Italian Tumbling E chart is 0.280±0.012 and 0.277±0.012, respectively. Paired t-test used to evaluate the mean difference between two groups (p=0.721) indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between means of the two tests. Spearman correlation coefficient for the results of both tests was 0.942 (p<0.001), which was statistically significant and could be categorized as a strong positive correlation.Conclusion: The two digital Tumbling E charts acted similarly at different levels of acuity in different disorders. However, the Iranian chart requires a more accurate design for optotypes of the lower acuity lines in order to obtain more accurate measurement of visual acuities in healthy subjects.

Case Report

Pulmonary Emboli Manifestation during Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section in two Pregnant Women

Mastaneh Dahi, Seyed Amir Mohajerani

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015), 1 February 2015 , Page 48-51

Background: Pregnancy causes a small increase in risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but a large increase in concern upon presentation during cesarean section with symptoms of pulmonary embolism (PE). Pulmonary embolism clinical manifestations during spinal anesthesia could be misleading. We have presented 2 interesting cases of pregnant women underwent spinal anesthesia for cesarean section and manifested with non-specific clinical symptoms of PE during spinal anesthesia mistaken for high spinal scenarios.

Cases Report: Two young pregnant women candidate for cesarean section underwent spinal anesthesia. During surgery, patient grows chest discomfort and dyspnea. Anesthesiologist misleaded for high spinal but observed patients during surgery and in recovery. Further investigation detected pulmonary embolism which was further treated in ICU and patients were discharged subsequently.

Conclusion: Anesthesiologists cannot safely rule out pulmonary embolism during spinal anesthesia in cesarean section without additional testing, at least not in pregnant women with a relatively high risk of PE.