Original Article

Radiolabeling of Herceptin with 99mTc as a Her2 tracer

Samira Heydari, Hossein Rajabi, Samira Rasaneh, Fariba Johari Daha

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2014), , Page 73-78

Introduction: Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that is used in treating breast cancer. We labeled this monoclonal antibody with Technetium-99m and performed in vitro and in vivo quality control tests as a first step in the production of a new radiopharmaceutical.

Methods: Trastuzumab was labeled with Technetium-99m using Succinimidyl Hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) as chelator. Radiochemical Purity and stability in buffer and serum were determined. Immunoreactivity and toxicity of the complex were tested on SKBR3, MCF7 and A431 breast cancer cell lines. Biodistribution study was performed in normal mice at 4 and 24 h post injection.

Results: The radiochemical purity of the complex was 95±1.4%. The stabilities in phosphate buffer and in human blood serum at 24 h post preparation were 85±3.5% and 74±1.2%, respectively. The immunoreactivity of the complex was 86±1.4%. The binding of labeled antibody to the surface of SKBR3, MCF7 and A431 cells were increased by increasing Her2 concentration on the cells surface.

Conclusions: The findings showed that the new radiopharmaceutical can be a promising candidate as Her2 antigen scanning for human breast cancer.

Measuring self-rated social health of Iranians: a population based survey in three cities

Kambiz Abachizadeh, Soheila Omidnia, Ahmad Hajebi, Ali Asadi, Maryam Rassouli, Bagherzadeh Leila

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2014), , Page 79-84


Background and objectives:

Social health as third dimension of health, along with physical and mental health, has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. No other study, to our knowledge, has documented measuring individual-level social health in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians self-rated social health through conducting a survey in 3 cities of Iran.



We conducted a survey using cross sectional method in three cities of Iran included people more than 18 years old. We use a random sample size of 800 people. The scale provides a total score of social health and three sub-scores. Total score was calculated by summing all 33 items, so the range was between 33 to 165, considering that higher score indicating better social health. Psychometric parameters of scale were acceptable. To interpret scores, respondents were categorized into five ordered groups as quintiles for amount of social health. To compare social health scores in different demographic groups multiple linear regression was employed to interpret association between demographic variables and social health score.



From a pool of 800 persons, 794 (99%) agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of self-rated social health score was 105.0 (95% confidence interval, 103.8 to 106.2). 50% of participants had medium level of social health. social health score was higher for those who live in Urmia as a small city in comparison with big cities- Tehran and Isfahan (P V< 0.001) and was lower for unemployed people (PV= 0.029). There was no association between social health score and other factors such as sex, age and educational level (PV>0.05)



This study may be considered as the first step in evidence-based policy-making in the field of social health in Iran. Certainly, it is necessary to conduct more studies to measure social health and its determinants in a nation-wide approach.

Investigating of the antimicrobial effect of total extract of Tribulus terrestris against some gram positive and negative bacteria and candida spp.

Mojdeh Hakemi Vala, Melina Makhmor, Farzad Kobarfar, Mohammad Kamalinejad, mohsen heidary, Saeed Khoshnood

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2014), , Page 85-90

Introduction: In the recent years, due to the wide spread of resistant bacteria on one side and several different reports about the side effects of chemical drugs on the other side, vast researches on the medicinal plants have been started. In this study, antimicrobial effect of total extract of Tribulus terrestris L. and its fraction containing Benzoxazine derivative (Terresoxazine) was studied for the first time in Iran.

Materials and methods: Total aqueous extract of aerial parts of the plant was prepared and in order to separate the components of aqueous extract, liquid/liquid extraction with Petroleum ether was used. Formation of three layers was the result of this extraction. Layers included water fraction, Petroleum ether fraction and a third layer which was formed at the interface of water and petroleum ether. LC/MS system proved the existence of Benzixazine derivative in the water fraction and the thirds fraction. Antimicrobial effects of total extract, water fraction and the third fraction (which were the layers formed after the extraction process) were examined against 10 Gram positive and negative and candida spp by cup plate method and Disk diffusion method. Also, the MIC and MBC were determined by micro dilution method.

Results: Of 8 evaluated bacteria and 2 Candida spp, the total extract showed antibacterial effect only against E.coli, P.aeruginosa and B.subtilis. Size of the zone of inhibitation increased with increasing the concentration of the extract. Fraction containing Benzoxazine derivative had no effect against tested microbes. MIC and MBC determination showed that B.subtilis had the least sensitivity to the total extract, comparing to other microorganisms. Besides, comparing the zone of inhibitation of Penicillin 200 mg/ml and the zone of inhibitation of the total aqueous extract shows that the solution of total extract in water with 1000 mg/ml concentration and the solution of total extract in DMSO10% with 750 mg/ml density can be substituted to Penicillin 200 mg/ml in P.aeruginosa infections.

Conclusion: Because of antibacterial effects of Tribulus terrestris L. against both Gram negative and positive bacteria, and no antibacterial effect of the fraction containing Benzoxazine derivative, it can be concluded that antibacterial effects of the total extract is due to other active ingredients or it is because of the cumulating of different components in total extract. Therefore separation of other components of total extract and determination of their antibacterial effects can be future subjects for researches about this plant.

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus Infection by Quantitative Chemiluminescent in Tabriz (North West of Iran), 2010-2011

Nader Hajizadeh, Samad Farhadi, Masoud Hamidi, Asghar Ashrafi-Hafez, Nayeb Ali Ahmadi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2014), , Page 91-94

Background: Hepatitis B is considered as one of the most common infectious diseases. The contamination of this virus has caused hygienic problems all over the world. Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are most important consequences of this disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of infection in Tabriz North West of Iran.

Materials and Methods: This study is carried out, on partial and short time basis between 2010 and 2011, on test results of 21421 examined individuals whom have visited clinics in Tabriz. HBsAg of the samples was analyzed with chemiluminescence apparatus and finally, SPSS software was used to conduct the statistical examination of the results.

Results: Among 21421 examined individuals (5021 cases in 2010 and 16400 cases in 2011), 594 samples (2.77%) were reported positive and 20827 samples (97.23%) were reported negative.

Conclusion: According to the results, gender was not a determining factor affecting the susceptibility of patients. Our country is endemic to this disease, so diagnostic and preventive methods are crucial, more over comprehensive national vaccination can help to noticeably reduce the infectious cases caused by the disease.

Early Effects of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy on Glomerular Filtration Rate and Determining the Potential Risk Factors Responsible for Acute Postoperative Renal Function Impairment

ali tabibia, Mahziar Khazaeli, Amir Modir, Amirreza Abedi, Pouneh Nabavizadeh, Mohammad Hossein Soltani

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2014), , Page 95-101

Background: In this study, the early effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed in different postoperative times and likewise, we determined the correlation of different variables with significant postoperative GFR drop  after PCNL.

Materials and Methods: Patient records of 486 cases that had undergone PCNL from January 2010 to October 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. GFR in six hours, one, two and three days after PCNL and in the discharge day were calculated and then compared with preoperative level. Correlation between different variables (Perioperative hemorrhage, co-morbidities, previous stone surgery, renal anomaly, number of access, stone burden and location) and risk of acute postoperative renal function impairment (GFR drop greater than 25%) were assessed.

Results: Mean preoperative GFR was 87.85±29.41ml/min/1.73m² which decreased to 86.18±28.77, 78.45±28.74, 78.79±26.94, 84.24±29.71 and 86.18±28.77 in 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after surgery and discharge day post PCNL, respectively. GFR significantly decreased in one and two days after surgery (p value<0.0001 and p value <0.05) but returned to near preoperative values in 3th post PCNL day. Among different variables, only perioperative bleeding (Cut-off point for serum hemoglobin drop was 2.8 mg/dL) was concomitant with significant postoperative renal function impairment.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed that co-morbidities, large or multiple stones, multiple punctures and previous history of stone surgery have no significant impact on surgical outcomes. Postoperative GFR returned to near preoperative values in a few days after operation. Avoidance of significant perioperative bleeding is an important point to prevent post PCNL renal insufficiency.

Post Laparoscopic Pain Control Using Local Anesthesia through Laparoscopic Port Sites

Seyyed Amir Vejdan, Malihe Khosravi, Ghodratoolah Naseh

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 2 No. 3 (2014), , Page 102-106

Background: Severe abdominal pain is not common after laparoscopic surgeries, but acute or chronic pain after operation is considerable in some patients. Post-operative Pain control after laparoscopic surgeries, is conventionally achieved using analgesics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and narcotics, but their administration has a lot of side effects. This study compares the efficacy and side effects of local anesthetic drugs versus conventional analgesics in post-operative pain control.

Materials and Methods: This prospective investigation was conducted into two groups of patients (n=93). Group 1, as control group, was given conventional analgesics such as narcotics and NSAIDs. In investigational group, at the end of laparoscopic surgery, prior to port withdrawal, a local anesthetic mixture, a short acting (Lidocaine 2%) plus a long acting (Bupivacaine 0.5%) is instilled through the port lumen between the abdominal wall layers. The efficacy of both types of medications was compared to their efficacy and side effects.

Results: 85% of the control group, received 5 to 20 ml Morphine for pain control while the others were controlled with trans-rectal NSAIDs. In the treatment group, the pain of 65% of the patients was controlled only by local anesthetic drugs, 30% required NSAIDs and the other 5% required narcotics administration for pain control.

Conclusion: The administration of local anesthetic drugs after laparoscopic surgery is an effective method for pain control with a low complications rate and side effects of narcotics.