Original Article


Acidic and Basic pH Effect in Two Cytoplasmic and Endoplasmic Reticulum Luminal Spaces on Chloride Channel Electrophysiological Behavior

Farzaneh Aslanpour Alamdary, Reza Saghiri, Minoo Ranjbar, Simin Namvar Aghdash

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page 1-8
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v6i1.16037

Background: In regard of chloride channel electrophysiological behavior importance in cellular homeostasis maintenance, some of diseases appearance because of chloride channels impairment, also reports of synchronization between chloride channels impairment and misadjusted pH and that presumably acid or basic pH in cytoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum luminal spaces are effective on this behavior, current study was performed.

Materials and Methods: Research was performed by experimental method. Vesicles from rat liver tissue endoplasmic reticulum were extracted and assessed in 30 samples in 6 groups. Electrophysiological behaviors of channels were measured in control, acidic and basic pH in cis and Trans environments and according of channel conductance and Po this behavior was determined and judged statistically. Data were filtered at 1 kHz and stored at a sampling rate of 10 kHz for offline analysis by PClamp9. Statistical analysis was performed based on Markov noise free single channel analysis.

Results: Channel conductance was 72 pS and its current – Voltage relation curve was linear. Channel has Voltage dependent behavior and has grater Po in positive Voltages. Channel conductance in acidic pH remained at 72 pS as of control situation. Channel Po was not changed. In basic pH these findings were also repeated. Also, in cis and Trans spaces these behaviors were sawed.

Conclusion: It seems that in pH stream from 6 to 8.5, current channel electrophysiological behavior could be important in endoplasmic reticulum and cellular homeostasis maintenance especially in positive ion such as calcium ion accumulation situation in cytoplasm.

Drug Utilization Evaluation of Vancomycin in Pediatric Department

Farzaneh Dehghan, Narges Khorami, Naeeme Taslimi Taleghani, Azita Bassiri, Parivash Davoodian, Fariba Shirvani, Nader Zolghadri, Simin Dokht Shoaei

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page 9-14
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v6i1.17354

Background: Increasing reports of Vancomycin resistance have raised concerns about effectiveness of this drug. One of the most important factors of resistance emergence is no adherence of physician to principles of antibiotic therapy. This study is a drug utilization evaluation (DUE) of Vancomycin in pediatric ward to assess appropriateness of drug regimens and to find possible problems in clinical practices that may necessitate reconciliation to improve Vancomycin use.

Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done for 1year from October 2014 to September 2015 at Khalij Fars General Hospital in Bandar Abbas. Data including patients’ demographics, paraclinic, diagnosis, vancomycin dose, and treatment duration were collected. The concordance of practice with standard guidelines (CDC, ASHP, and IDSA) and principles of antibiotic therapy was assessed. Results were analyzed by SPSS 20.

Results: 102 medical records were reviewed in this study. Pneumonia (60=59%) and sepsis (22=21.5%) were the most common diagnosis. Sampling was done in 6% of patients with 2% antibiogram. Vancomycin was administered appropriately in 56.9% percent of patients with no sex difference (PV= 0.55) but age with significant difference (PV= 0.017). Over use was in a great proportion of patients (36cases=35%) as unnecessary, improper combination and broad spectrum regimen.

Conclusion: Vancomycin was overused irrationally in a great proportion of patients. There was no serum level monitoring. Microbial resistance, serum trough level monitoring programs and continuous medical education for physicians can be effective in rational use of antibiotic.

Assessing Attitudes of Medical Students towards First Contact with Patient in Tehran (2016-17)

Eznollah Azargashb, Mohamad Ali Heidarnia, Mohamad Mehdi Derisi, Amir Zamani, Amirreza Keyvanfar, Mohammad Mohammadi, Nima Sadeghzadeh, Mirsaid Mousavifar

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page 15-20
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v6i1.17680

Background: Early experience of clinical arena as first situations can be effective in selection or refusing medicine as profession is so important that programmers and administrators should consider these settings as one of the most elements in educational programs.

Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study and including presently studying students in medicine field of medical sciences universities. Sample size was estimated for 275 students. Participants were selected from schools of medicine: Iran University (IUMS), Shahid Beheshti University, and Islamic Azad University using stratified random sampling method. Data was collected in March of 2016 by a researcher made questionnaire determined its validity and reliability. Data was analyzed using chi-squared test, t-test, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test.

Results: Mean score of medical students’ attitude from 15 five-degree scale questions was 51.22 ± 6.32. The mean scores of attitude in men and women were 51.37±6.16 and 51.06±6.53, respectively (p=0.687). Overall, 13.8 % of students had positive attitude towards first contact with patient, 10.5 % of students had negative attitude and 75.6 % had no opinion. The mean scores of attitude towards first contact with patient in Iran university, Shahid Beheshti university and Islamic Azad university were 50.40±5.00, 52.71±5.91 and 46.12±5.97, respectively (p<0.001). The mean scores of attitude towards first contact with patient in reformed educational system and old educational system were 52.35±5.83 and 46.12±5.97 respectively, with a significant difference between two types of educational system (p<0.001).

Conclusion: As respects more positive attitude of students in reformed educational system in comparison with old educational system, special attention to courses of early contact with patient may contribute to decreasing educational insufficiency and distance between theory and practice and lead to the satisfaction all of beneficiaries.

Brain-Included 18F FDG PET/CT Acquisition Protocol: Cancer-Specified Clinical Impact of Newly-Diagnosed Brain Metastasis in Extra-Cerebral Cancer Patients

Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram, Fahimeh Tavakoli, Maryam Hassanzad, Sharareh Seifi, Hamid Reza Jamaati, farahnaz Aghahosseini

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page 21-28
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v6i1.18086

Background: Evolution of individualized radiosurgical therapeutic methods for brain metastasis as an ominous prognostic finding may encourage a more extensive application of neuroimaging in patients with extracerebral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the added value of brain-included 18 F FDG PET/CT acquisition protocol based on primary cancer type and clinical indication.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 3945 18 F FDG PET/CT reports of patients with extra-cerebral cancer underwent brain-included PET/CT study. Cerebral lesions suggestive of brain metastasis were subsequently verified by MRI, MRI+MRS, surgical pathology and a 1-year clinical formal follow up. The detection rate of new brain metastasis and related impact on disease status were then investigated in each cancer type based on clinical indication.

Results: Of a total 3933 eligible patients, 44 (1.12%) were finally verified to have new cerebral metastasis. The most common primary sources were lung cancer (19/385, 4.93%), cancer of unknown primary (CUP) (5/168, 2.97%) and breast cancer (8/468, 1.71%). The most common clinical indications were initial staging (17/44, 43.1%) and restaging (19/44, 36.4%). Change in disease status occurred in 12 out of 44 patients (27.3%), more frequently occurred in lung cancer (n=4), in all indications and breast (n=3) cancers at restaging (n=7, 43.8%).

Conclusion: PET/CT acquisition protocol study may be best optimized based on the type of primary cancer and timing of evaluation. Brain-included field of view may be recommended for lung cancer regardless the clinical indication, cancer of unknown primary and breast cancer at restaging.

Survey of Expression of Aflatoxin Production Regulator Gene (aflR) in Aspergillus Parasiticus by Alpinia Galanga L and Dorema Aucheri

Zahra Arab-Mazar, Ensieh lotfali, Ali Ghadjari, Sanaz Aghaei Gharehbolagh, Reza Mohammadi, Sadegh Nouripour-Sisakht

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page 29-34
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v6i1.17976

Background: Aflatoxins are one of the highly toxic secondary metabolites, which are mainly produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. This species frequently cause of food and agricultural products contamination including cereals, peanuts, and crops in the field. During recent years, researchers have considered research on elimination of aflatoxin and antifungal effects of medicinal herbals, such as Alpinia galanga L and Dorema aucheri. In this study, the effect of A.galanga L and D.aucheri a natural compound was examined on Aspergillus parasiticus growth, aflatoxins production and the aflR gene expression.

Materials and Methods: Antifungal susceptibility A.galanga L and D.aucheri was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2. Quantitative changes in aflR gene level of expression were analyzed by Real-time PCR method.

Results: Our result obtained that the MIC of extracts on A. parasiticus growth 250 mg/mL for D.aucheri and 800 mg/mL for A.galanga L. D.aucheri has antitoxic properties as well as its effective ability to decrease aflatoxin production. The level of aflR gene expression was decreased significantly after the exposure of fungal cell to D.aucheri extract, but A.galanga L didn’t have significant effect.

Conclusion: This research indicated that D.aucheri has antifungal effects more than A.galanga L. Due to our obtained result we can suggest that D.aucheri herbal extract may have antifungal potential in medicine or agriculture.

Instructional Design "Postpartum Fitness” for Midwife Staff of Shemiranat (Tehran, Iran) Health Network

Rita Rahmati Roodsari, Fathieh Mortazavi, Abdossaleh Zar

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page 35-42
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v6i1.19347

Background: One of the postpartum cares lives is supporting and encouraging them more to exercise after delivery and monitoring them. Health care workers, particularly midwives have a great role in the promotion of sport activity. Purpose of this study is Designed training for "postpartum fitness" by Roth well approach for midwives at health network in Shemiranat.

Materials and Methods: This research is kind of Instructional design. Sampling was done by using census method Data collection was done by multiple choice tests for knowledge and attitudes of questionnaire and practical assessment exercise was part. After assessment and instructional design and was done Roth well model and Ganyh strategies.

Results: Average response to questions in the cognitive domain was 49%. In this study 92% of the employees have positive attitude to importance and impact of the study. The result of the data related to the workplace of participants is health centers (53.3%). Most frequency is for who has less than 5 years’ work experience (50%)and most frequency is for official staff (43.3%), most educational level related to bachelors (83.3%) and the highest age rate is between 30-40 years old (40%).

Conclusion: Positive attitude towards this issue and earn score below %80 indicates a need for staff to learn and raise awareness about the above topic. Create knowledge, training, counseling mothers about this issue are the midwife duties. This reflects a greater emphasis on design education.

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although the etiology of PD is unknown, but major biochemical processes such as oxidative stress is largely described. Angiotensin II activates NADPH depending oxidases and produce superoxides formation. Morus nigra L. extract is an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and tested for anti-Parkinsonism effects by biochemical and behavioral evaluations.

Materials and Methods: In total 48 Male Wistar rats weighting 200-250 g were divided into 4 groups: (1) Sham (normal saline was injected in the left SNC), (2) Neurotoxin (injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into left SNC), (3) Morus nigra L. aqueous extract and (4) captopril. Morus nigra (10 mg/kg) and captopril (5 mg/kg) were daily-injected i.p. from 6 days before neurotoxin injection, until one day after 6-hydroxydopamine injection. Muscle stiffness and apomorphine test were assessed in 6 rats of any groups after two weeks. Protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and ACE activity were assessed in brains of 6 rats of each group after 24 hours.

Results: Rotation test with apomorphine, Rigidity with Murprogo’s test, and lipid peroxidation in sham, captopril and Morus nigra groups were significantly lower than neurotoxin group. Protein oxidation in Morus nigra group was significantly lower than neurotoxin group. Brain ACE activity in neurotoxin, captopril and Morus nigra groups were inhibited.

Conclusion: Morus nigra L. extract had protective effects on neuronal oxidation and death and improved signs of PD possibly by ACE inhibition.

Case Report


Isolated Retrobulbar Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report

Shahnaz Sali, Javad Minooeifar, Azadeh La'li, Zahra Doosti, Masoud Ebrahimi

Novelty in Biomedicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page 51-54
https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v6i1.17289

Background: Hydatid cyst is caused by Echinococcus granulosus and human is the accidental host. The most common sites of involvement are the liver and lungs, and involvement of other organs is less common. Ocular involvement of hydatid cyst is one of the most uncommon manifestations of hydatid cyst.

Cases Report: The case was a 40-year-old woman with a retrobulbar cystic lesion who was examined for the left eye pain and then proptosis. With the initial diagnosis of retrobulbar tumor, the patient underwent surgery and the removed mass was sent to the pathology laboratory. Since the result indicated the existence of a hydatid cyst, the patient was referred to the infectious service and was treated with albendazole.

Conclusion: Although the ocular involvement of hydatid cyst is uncommon, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with proptosis in the endemic areas.