Cause-Specific Mortality among HIV-Infected Persons in One Medical Center, Tehran, Iran
Novelty in Biomedicine,
Vol. 7 No. 4 (2019),
9 August 2019
AbstractBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the major infectious agents, which has important role in the public health challenges, which have affected the world's economic and social situation recent decades. During the last decades, millions of people died due to HIV infection worldwide. However, data remain limited on the causes of death among HIV-infected in Iranian population. The aim of the present study was to assess the cause specific death among HIV positive inpatient persons in Iran.
Materials and Methods: This surveillance was conducted on inpatient HIV positive admissions at Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran during October 2016 and April 2017.All patient’s data were collected via abstraction form, which were ascertained, from medical records and from written logbooks that were kept by the nursing staff on the ward. The data of each admission was recorded from the medical reports at the time of admission and upon discharge. All laboratory data were collected and recorded separately.
Results: Fifty persons were diagnosed as HIV-infected patients, of which 58% of them were classified as AIDS patients. Our findings indicated that the cause of hospitalization were pulmonary 54%, neurological 20%, gastrointestinal 16%, and dermal 10% complications. Overall, 21 patients (42%) were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, of which one patient died from tuberculosis complications. Four patients died during the study period.
Conclusion: In conclusion, early treatment and/or early use of ART can be improved outcomes. Therefore, early HIV testing and early ART use play important role in mortality reduction among eligible persons.
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Mortality rate
- Opportunistic infections
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. [accessed Nov 3, 2014] GBD 2013 Protocol: global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. 2013. http://www.healthdata.org/gbd/about/protocol
Abubakar II, Tillmann T, Banerjee A. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2015;385(9963):117-71.
Balogou AA, Saka B, Kombate´ D, et al. Causes of mortality associated with HIV/AIDS in health-care facilities in Togo: a six-month prospective study. Trop Doct. 2011;41:215–7.
Lewden C, Drabo YJ, Zannou DM, et al. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV positive adults in West Africa: a multicountry survey in the antiretroviral treatment era. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:18797.
Kra O, Aba YT, Yao KH, et al. Clinical, biological, therapeutic and evolving profile of patients with HIV infection hospitalized at Infectious and tropical diseases unit in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). Bull SocPatholExot. 2013;106:37–42.
Perry ME, Kalenga K, Watkins LF, Mukaya JE, Powis KM, Bennett K, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Shapiro RL. HIV-related mortality at a district hospital in Botswana. International journal of STD & AIDS. 2017;28(3):277-83.
Cascade Collaboration. Determinants of survival following HIV-1 seroconversion after the introduction of HAART. The Lancet. 2003;362(9392):1267-74.
Braitstein P, Brinkhof MW, Dabis F, Schechter M, Boulle A, Miotti P, Wood R, Laurent C, Sprinz E, Seyler C, Bangsberg DR. Mortality of HIV-1-infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: comparison between low-income and high-income countries. Lancet (London, England). 2006;367(9513):817-24.
Laurent C, Diakhate N, Gueye NFN, Toure MA, Sow PS, Faye MA, et al. The Senegalese government’s highly active antiretroviral therapy initiative: an 18- month follow-up study. AIDS. 2002;16:1363:70.
Seyler C, Messou E, Gabillard D, Inwoley A, Alioum A, Anglaret X. Morbidity before and after HAART initiation in Sub-Saharan African HIV-infected adults: a recurrent event analysis. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:1338:47.
Moh R, Danel C, Messou E, Ouassa T, Gabillard D, Anzian A, et al. Incidence and determinants of mortality and morbidity following early antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-infected adults in West Africa. AIDS. 2007;21:2483:91.
Etard JF, Ndiaye I, Thierry-Mieg M, Gueye NF, Gueye PM, Laniece I, et al. Mortality and causes of death in adults receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in Senegal: a 7-year cohort study. AIDS. 2006;20:11819.
Lawn SD, Myer L, Orrell C, Bekker LG, Wood R. Early mortality among adults accessing a community-based antiretroviral service in South Africa: implications for programme design. AIDS. 2005;19:21418.
Gabillard D, Lewden C, Ndoye I, Moh R, Segeral O, Tonwe-Gold B, et al. Mortality, AIDS-morbidity and loss to follow-up by current CD4 cell count among HIV-1 infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Africa and Asia: data from the ANRS 12222 collaboration. J Acquir Immune DeficSyndr. 2013;62:555:61.
Lawn SD, Badri M, Wood R. Tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients receiving HAART: long term incidence and risk factors in a South African cohort. AIDS. 2005;19:210916.
Curtis AJ, Marshall CS, Spelman T, Greig J, Elliot JH, Shanks L, et al. Incidence of WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions following initiation of antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings. PLoS One. 2012;7:e52019.
Boulle A, Orrel C, Kaplan R, Van Cutsem G, McNally M, Hilderbrand K, et al. Substitutions due to antiretroviral toxicity or contraindication in the first 3 years of antiretroviral therapy in a large South African cohort. AntivirTher. 2007;12:75360.
Lewden C, May T, Rosenthal E, Burty C, Bonnet F, Costagliola D, et al. Changes in causes of death among adults infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) between 2000 and 2005. The ‘‘Mortalite´ 2000 & 2005’’ surveys (ANRS EN19 and Mortavic). J Acquir Immune DeficSyndr. 2008;48:5908.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Revised surveillance case definition for HIV infection-United States, 2014. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014;63(RR-03):1-10.
Adih WK, Selik RM, Hu X. Trends in diseases reported on U.S. death certificates that mentioned HIV infection, 1996-2006. J IntAssoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2011;10(1):5-11.
Cohen MH, French AL, Benning L, et al. Causes of death among women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Am J Med. 2002;113(2): 91-8.
Palella FJ Jr, Baker RK, Moorman AC, et al. Mortality in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: changing causes of death and disease in the HIV outpatient study. J Acquir Immune DeficSyndr. 2006; 43(1):27-34.
Buchacz K, Rangel M, Blacher R, Brooks JT. Changes in the clinical epidemiology of HIV infection in the United States: implications for the clinician. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2009;11(1):75-83.
Van der Plas H, Meintjes G, Schutz C, et al. Complications of antiretroviral therapy initiation in hospitalized patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis. PLoS One. 2013;8:e54145.
Bardgett H, Dixon M and Beeching N. Increase in hospital mortality from non-communicable disease and HIVrelated conditions in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between 1992 and 2000. Trop Doct. 2006;36:129.
Pallangyo K, Ha˚ kanson A, Lema L, et al. High HIV seroprevalence and increased HIV-associated mortality among hospitalized patients with deep bacterial infections in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. AIDS 1992; 6:971–976.
Jam S, Sabzvari D, SeyedAlinaghi S, Fattahi F, Jabbari H, Mohraz M. Frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS by PPD test. ActaMedicaIranica. 2010;48(1):67.
Khosravi AD, Alavi SM, Hashemzade M, Abasi E, Seghatoleslami S. The relative frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium infections in HIV positive patients, Ahvaz, Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;5(1):71-4.
Yamchi JK, Haeili M, Feyisa SG, Kazemian H, Shahraki AH, Zahednamazi F, Fooladi AA, Feizabadi MM. Evaluation of efflux pump gene expression among drug susceptible and drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Iran. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2015;36:23-6.
Kazemian H, Haeili M, Yamchi JK, Rezaei F, Feyisa SG, Zahednamazi F, Mohajeri P, Bostanabd SZ, Shahraki AH, Fooladi AA, Feizabadi MM. Antimycobacterial activity of linezolid against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Iran. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2015 Jun 1;45(6):668-70.
Hernando V, Perez-Cachafeiro S, Lewden C, et al. All-cause and liverrelated mortality in HIV positive subjects compared to the general population: differences by HCV co-infection. J Hepatol 2012;57: 743–51.
Berenguer J, Alejos B, Hernando V, et al. Trends in mortality according to hepatitis C virus serostatus in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2012;26:2241–6.
Hernando V, Alejos B, Monge S, et al. All-cause mortality in the cohorts of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (RIS) compared with the general population: 1997–2010. BMC Infect Dis 2013;13:382.
Peters L, Mocroft A, Soriano V, et al. Hepatitis C virus coinfection does not influence the CD4 cell recovery in HIV-1-infected patients with maximum virologic suppression. J Acquir Immune DeficSyndr. 2009;50:457–63.
Sulkowski MS, Moore RD, Mehta SH, et al. Hepatitis C and progression of HIV disease. JAMA. 2002;288:199–206.
d’Arminio Monforte A, Cozzi-Lepri A, Castagna A, et al. Risk of developing specific AIDS-defining illnesses in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus with or without liver cirrhosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:612–22.
Berenguer J, Rodriguez E, Miralles P, et al. Sustained virological response to interferon plus ribavirin reduces non-liver-related mortality in patients coinfected with HIV and Hepatitis C virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:728–36.
- Abstract Viewed: 96 times
- PDF Downloaded: 61 times