Original Article / Research Article

Relationship between Dairy Product Consumption and Oligospermia; a Case-Control Study

Alireza Dizavi, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Jalil Hosseini, Nasrin Omidvar, Mohammad Ali Hosseini

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e2

Introduction: Infertility affects an estimated 15% of couples globally and in Iran, a quarter of Introduction: One of the current debates regarding men’s reproductive health is the declining sperm count and the role of nutritional and environmental factors. This study aims to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and oligozoospermia, sperm count of 5 to 15 million per milliliter of semen, in adult men.

Materials and Methods: This age-matched case-control study was conducted on 102 oligozoospermia and 306 healthy men (control group). Both groups were recruited from an infertility clinic in Tehran, the Royan Institute. Dietary intake of subjects was collected using a valid and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR), ex-tracted from conditional logistic regression, were used to compare the occurrence of oligozoospermia by tertiles of dairy intake. 

Results: After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the high intake of low-fat dairy products was inversely associated with the risk of oligozoospermia (OR: 0.48; 95%CI: 0.24 – 0.95), (P =0.046). The higher intake of high–fat dairy products [(OR: 2.44; 95%CI: 1.26 – 4.73), (P =0.008)], high–fat milk [(OR: 2.16; 95%CI: 1.09 – 4.30), (P =0.043)], and ice creams [(OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.25 – 4.50), (P =0.008)] were also positively associated with oligozo-ospermia.

Conclusion: The high intake of low–fat dairy foods seems to have a protective effect on oligozoospermia. Higher intake of high – fat dairy products, high– fat milk, and ice creams were associated with an increased risk of oligozo-ospermia.


The Relationship Between BMI and Spermogram Indices in Male Iranians Aged 20 to 50 Years Old

Ali Zare-Mirzaie, Fazele Soltani Shirazi, Afshin Moradi, Zahra Vejdani, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Behrang Kazeminezhad

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e4

Introduction: Male factor infertility is the cause of 20 to 30% of infertile couples in population, and there are reports that obesity in men may be one of the factors affecting fertility. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and semen parameters in 20 to 50 year-old Iranian men.

Materials and Methods: The archives of two major laboratories in Tehran were screened and the results of semen analyses from 640 nonvasectomized men referring during 2009-2013 were collected. Data on height, weight, BMI, age, sperm count, percentage of sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and sperm viability was recorded. Anal-ysis of these data was performed using SPSS software.

Results: The mean age of subjects and their mean BMI were 30.2 ± 5.9 years and 26.0 ± 4.1 kg/m2, respectively. The average values of semen parameters were as follows: total sperm count = 53.7 ± 33.6 million, pH = 8.2 ± 0.3, normal sperm morphology = 50.1 ± 10.9%, viability = 69.46 ± 12.6%, and grade-A sperms = 39.4 ± 16.8%. BMI had no significant correlation with the semen parameters including sperm morphology, viability, pH, and motility.

Conclusion: No significant correlation between BMI and semen parameters was observed in the sample of Iranian males evaluated in this study.


Serum Resistin levels in bladder cancer

Mahmoud Mohammadi, Jalil Hosseini, Morteza Fallah Karkan, Mehdi Hedayati

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e5

Background: Adipokines play a role in pathogenesis and progression of certain cancers. Resistin is an adipokine with diverse findings in disease development and progression. The present study aimed to determine Resistin serum levels in bladder cancer cases in order to identify novel tumor markers.

Methods: This research was based on a case-control study, including 45 patients with bladder cancer and 45 healthy controls. Resistin levels were measured by ELISA in both groups. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (kg/m2) was calculated.

Results: Resistin levels were significantly different between bladder cancer and the control group (p<0.0001) but Resistin levels in different stages were not significantly different. Also there was no correlation among sex, age, body mass index and the serum Resistin levels.

Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in serum Resistin levels play an important role in the diagnosis and could act as a biomarkers for bladder cancer.


Comparison of bone cell viability and proliferation in 3D scaffold to Monolayer cell culture

Faezeh Azizi, Sahar Omidpanah, Afshin Moradi, Mohammad Ali Hossini, Fereshte Aliakbari, Samira Shariatpanahi

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e7

Introduction: Today, due to high rates of accidents and fractures leading to bone defects and due to the limited possibility of bone graft bonding, using the patient’s cell culture on appropriate scaffolds and transferring it to the defect area is suggested as one of the treatment plans.

Materials and methods: Bone samples of 8 male subjects that were under craniotomy surgery in the hospital were collected. First, the samples were cut into smaller pieces and then, transferred to incubator culture dishes. Two weeks later, the osteoblast activity on the bone matrix began and on average, the cells covered the dishes within two weeks. The first generation of the cells was removed by Trypsin_EDTA method from the opaltes, then were divided into two parts, one was added to alginate gel and the other to monolayer culture. In order to prove the osteoblast activity on the bone matrix and investigate these activities, Van Kossa staining method was used, and also to investigate the cell viability, MTT method was employed.  

Results: There was a significant difference in the number of the cells created in alginate gel and those created in monolayer after two weeks (P <0.001). Moreover, the difference between mean cell counts in alginate gel and monolayer was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The results of the MTT test in second week showed that the number of alive cells is significantly higher in alginate gel (P <0.001). Finally, the result of the Van Kossa method proved extracellular matrix in both experimental groups.

Conclusion: Results showed that alginate gel better can support duplication and survival of osteoblasts compared to monolayer culture. This may be attributed to the biological properties of this gel; alginate gel porosity provides conditions under which cellular and metabolic activities are accelerated.


In vitro maturation of human oocytes using culture in alginate matrix

Fereshte Aliakbari, Mohammad Hossein Heidari, Mohammad Ali Hossini, Zahra Sadeghzadeh, Farhang Abed

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e9

Introduction: In vitro maturation (IVM) infertility treatment in women with infertility problems - for example, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) reduces the amount of gonadotrophin medications, thereby reducing the cost of treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alginate three-dimensional culture on maturity of immature human oocytes and the amount of 8-cell embryos produced by sperm injection to oocyte cytoplasm (ICSI).

Materials and methods: This experimental study was conducted in Mahdieh Infertility Research Center from 2015 to 2017.  A total of 70 immature oocytes from the female ovary to candidate for fertilization were selected and divided into two control and experimental groups. In the control group, the basic culture medium (TCM199, FSH 0/75, FBS10 %) and in the experimental group, the basic culture medium with the alginate was used. Then, the mmature oocytes were fertilized by ICSI and 8-cell embryos was evaluated by reverse microscope. Quantitative data was analyzed using the ANOVA statistical method and SPSS software at significant level of a P<0.05.

Results: The amount of maturity of immature oocytes to MII metaphase stage and the arrival of the embryos to the 8-cell significantly increased in alginate group compared to the control group (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Results demonstrated that alginate can increase the maturity of immature human oocytes and also increases the rate of embryos reaching the 8-cell stage.


Improvement of Erectile Dysfunction by Revascularization Surgery Following Urethroplasty in Patients with Pelvic Fracture

Hoss Najd Sepas, Ali Tayyebi Azar, Manouchehr Bashirian, Farhad Mirkazemi, Farzin Soleimanzadeh, Reza Mousavi, Zahra Zolghadr, Jalil Hosseini

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e10

Introduction: Erectile dysfunction is one of the most common sexual disorders in men and affects one out of every five men over the age of 40 years. Penile revascularization is one of the methods for treating erectile dysfunction in these patients.

Methods: The participants were patients who had erectile dysfunction after a pelvic fracture. These patients had Urethroplasty for at least one year ago due to urethral trauma and also undergone penile micro vascularization surgery. Sexual activity was allowed from the second month accompanied with the administration of tadalafil and yohimbine prior to intercourse.

Results: In this study, 52 patients with the mean age of 30.65 ± 7 years (range: 24-45) were included. 24 patients (46%) were married. The mean time interval between pelvic fracture and surgery was 49.80 ± 16.30 months (range: 22 to 85). Complete response was seen in 9 cases (17.3%), relative responses in 18 (34.6%), and treatment failure in 25 cases (48.1%). The treatment results did not show any significant difference between the two dissimilar surgical procedures (Micheal versus-Virag) (P = 0.58).

Conclusion: Based on this case-series, it is concluded that penile revascularization surgery seems to have a relatively good effect on the improvement of vascular erectile dysfunction in patients with pelvic fracture urethral distraction effect following Urethroplasty.

Case Report

Rare case of bilateral vassal agenesis and AZFc microdeletion: A case report

Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Hesamoddin Sajadi

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e3

Introduction: Bilateral vassal agenesis (CBAVD) is a rare cause of male infertility. Also one of the nonobstructive cause of azoospermia and infertility in men is microdeletion in long arm of Y chromosome. In this case report we have reported a rare case of CBAVD, LT renal agenesis and AZFc microdeletion.

Patient Information:

28 years old man, who was farmer with history of 6 years of infertility presented to our andrology clinic in Royan institute. In physical examination there was not any palpable vas deferens bilaterally, also The semen analysis was azoospermia. In sonographic evaluation, LT kidney wasn’t seen in its anatomic location. The patient candidate for diagnostic PESA and bilateral PESA were negative. After that, the patient candidate for bilateral TESE and fascinatingly TESE was negative too. After genetic evaluation microdeletion was detected in AZFc subregion of Y chromosome.


In men with obstructive azoospermia mostly testicular spermatogenesis is normal but this is not the rule because seldom spermatogenic dysfunction maybe present like our patient. We emphasize about the importance of consideration of obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia together in a patient for urologists.


Systematic Review

The Genetic Causes of Male Infertility in Iranian Population; A systematic Review

Faezeh Azizi, Mir Davood Omrani, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Jalil Hosseini

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e1

Introduction: Infertility affects an estimated 15% of couples globally and in Iran, a quarter of couples experiences primary infertility. Males are found to be individually responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases and contribute to 50% of cases totally. When assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are used to acquire pregnancy, a sufficient (epi) genetic diagnosis of male infertility (MI) is of main matter to consider if a genetic abnormality will be transmit-ted to offspring. Infertility centers together with Infertility research centers had been founded since 1994 in Iran and many articles from research projects have been published.

Materials and Methods: This literature investigated the possible genetic causes mechanisms underlying Iranian male infertility by extensive article searches.  First, we reviewed available data from the Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, IranMedex, MEDLIB, IranDoc and Scientific Information Database were searched for articles published until 2018, using the MeSH terms for a variety of chromosome abnormalities, Y-chromosome microdeletions, gene mutations, expression and polymorphisms, Male infertility and/or Iranian, regional and international population, to provides the evidence- based and a comprehensive, up-to- date evaluation of the multifactorial factors involved in Iranian infertile men.  

Results: According to the strategy adopted initially, 274 manuscripts were found. After reviewing the titles, abstracts and manuscripts entirely cited, the total of 139 articles were obtained and selected according to the eligibility criteria. The 139 studies were divided into four predetermined categories that mentioned above.  Studies have good methodological validity. The sample is quite heterogeneous, given the very different design of the studies.

Conclusion: MI is a complex, multi-factorial disease and the underlying reasons frequently remain unknown. It seems that the first line of genetic diagnosis in Iranian male infertility is similar to Global One. In all investigations conducted in Iran, there are vacancies in studies such as epigenetic modification studies, RNA (lncRNA, miRNA and piRNA) abnormalities, mutation detection and polymorphism studies in other genes involved in the spermatogenesis process. At present, we have a little information for some polymorphisms (MTHFR, GST, ER, and DAZL) and mutations (mtDNA, CATSPER) which require more extensive studies. Such articles help to find a better insight into the causes of infertility in the Iranian men's community and will provide valuable visions into the development of targeted personalized treatments for patients and the ascertainment of the reasons of idiopathic infertility.


Gene Polymormisms and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review

Faezeh Azizi, Mohammad Soleimani, Seyed Yousef Hosseini, Saeid Amini Nik, Jalil Hosseini

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e6

Introduction: The prostate is a gland that surrounds men's urethra and helps to produce semen. In developed countries, prostate cancer (PCa.) is the second most common and lethal disease in men. Hereditary history of PCa. is a major contributor to this cancer? While a number of genetic and molecular changes have been reported in PCa, the general picture of the genetic aberrations is needed in Iranian population.

Methods: In this study, a literature search from Jan. 2000 to June 2018 was performed through the PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, IranMedex, MEDLIB, IranDoc and Scientific Information databases using the keywords “genetic polymorphisms”, “prostate cancer”, “Iranian, and compare with regional and international population”.

Results: The results revealed that several genome-wide association studies (such as rs2070744 and rs1799983 in the eNOS, rs243865 in the MMP2, rs1902023 in the UGT2B15, rs266882 in the PSA, rs10625775443 in the GNB3, rs 1800682 in the FAS, rs12052398 and rs13393577 in the ERBB4, rs181133 in the MTHFR, rs 1805087 in the MTR, rs1805355 in the MSH3, (rs60271534 in the CYP19, rs2234693 and rs9340799 in the ER-a, rs4986938 and rs1256049 in the ER-b) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in important pathways (such as angiogenesis, androgen receptor binding site, cell signaling, folate metabolism, DNA repair, hormone synthesis and metabolism polymorphisms ) involved in prostate cancer occurrence and mechanism could serve as candidate biomarkers for the detection of PCa. The most important results of the all studied articles is summarized in Table 1 and 2.

Conclusion: Several studies have been conducted on the family history of PCa. The main reason for this gathering is to inherit the involved genes. Additional studies are required to decipher precisely the gene combinations and personalize the management of prostate cancer. This article is the first comprehensive overview of genetic investigations of gene polymorphisms on PCa. in Iran.


Expression of let-7 family as a survival biomarker for lung cancer: A meta-analysis

Faezeh Azizi, Fereshteh Aliakbari, Zahra Zolghadr, Reza Hosseini, Reza Hashemi

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2018), 13 July 2018 , Page e8

Introduction: Lung cancer is the most common cancer among men around the world. Today, by evaluating the expression of microRNA biomarkers, cancer cells can be detected in specific tissues. However, it's still controversy that the expression of let-7 in the prognosis of patients with lung cancer is informative.

Material and Methods: A meta-analysis was performed by searching Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, IranMedex, MEDLIB, IranDoc and Scientific Information Database(SID). All data were extracted from articles comparing prognosis in patients with lung cancer having low expression of let-7 with those having high expression. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Subgroup analyses were conducted for ethnicity.

Results: A total of 1,370 cases of lung cancer were involved for this meta-analysis. The HR of low let-7 expression was 1.32 (95 % CI 0.68–2.58). A subgroup analysis was performed on ethnicity; combined HR was 1.56 (95 % CI 0.52–4.62) for Asians and 1.08 (95%CI 0.42–2.74) for non-Asians.

Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the expression of let-7 and lung cancer, let-7 might be a biomarker in Asian patients with favourable prognosis. Furthermore, with large-scale investigations, useful prognostic microRNA biomarkers in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up could be detected.