Blood lead level and related factors in ADHD patients of Loghman Hakim Hospital in 2016- 2017
Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences,
Vol. 24 No. 1 (2019),
Introduction: Lead is a highly neurotoxic metal mainly in early life. In this study we investigate blood lead level (BLL) in children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and some related factors mainly opium exposure, as a source of lead exposure in recent years in Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study children & adolescents aged < 18 years in Child Neurology Clinic of Loghman Hakim hospital with ADHD criteria according to DMS-V in Tehran-Iran were studied. Lead Care II checked BLLs using 0.5-milliliter heparinzed venous blood. Demographics characteristic and some related factors such as old housing, parents’ job, pica, opium exposure were asked and analyzed.
Results: Fifty-one children and adolescents <18 years, 25.5% female and 74.5% male with mean ages of 71.4+30.3 months entered the study. Mean BLL was 6.34+2.63 µg/dl. The mean BLL in 100 normal children in Loghman Hakim hospital was 3.4 µg/dl. Mean BLL was 57/6 µg/dl in boys and60/6 µg/dl in girls, (p=0.973). Also, the difference in mean BLLs were not significant in terms of living place, sex, age, pica and parents job. Totally, 43 patients (84.3%) of the study samples had BLL ≥5 µg/dl. The highest blood lead level in our patient was 20.1 µg/dl. Eighteen (32.7%) of our patients have positive history for opium exposure in their family that BLL in this group was 5.84 µg/dl in comparison 6.95 µg/dl in cases with no opium exposure, that there were not statistically significant. (p=0.148)
Conclusion: Based on the results of our study, clinicians are encouraged to take accurately attention about possible lead exposure and to rule out environmental hazards when evaluating for ADHD, particularly in young children and laboratory investigation for this toxin in high-risk cases and further researches recommended
- Lead poisoning; ADHD; Opium exposure; Children
How to Cite
2. Kliegman RM, Geme JS. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics E-Book: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2019.
3. Soltaninejad K, Shadnia S. Lead poisoning in opium abuser in Iran: A systematic review. International journal of preventive medicine. 2018;9.
4. Mohammadi M, Akhondzadeh S. Advances and considerations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder pharmacotherapy. Acta Medica Iranica. 2011:487-98.
5. Brue AW, Oakland TD. Alternative treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: does evidence support their use? Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2002;8(1):68.
6. He J, Ning H, Huang R. Low blood lead levels and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2019;26(18):17875-84.
7. Daneshparvar M, Mostafavi S-A, Jeddi MZ, Yunesian M, Mesdaghinia A, Mahvi AH, et al. The role of lead exposure on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: a systematic review. Iranian journal of psychiatry. 2016;11(1):1.
8. Parvaresh N, Mazhari S, Nazari-Noghabi M. Frequency of psychiatric disorders in children of opioid or methamphetamine-dependent patients. Addiction & health. 2015;7(3-4):140.
9. Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, et al. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-sectional study of Mexican children. Environmental health perspectives. 2015;124(6):868-74.
10. Salehi B, Imani R, Mohammadi MR, Fallah J, Mohammadi M, Ghanizadeh A, et al. Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trial. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 2010;34(1):76-80.
11. Ghane T, Zamani N, Hassanian-Moghaddam H, Beyrami A, Noroozi A. Lead poisoning outbreak among opium users in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2016–2017. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2018;96(3):165.
12. Zamani N, Gholami N, Hassanian-Moghaddam H, Farnaghi F, Gachkar L. Factors Associated With High Blood Lead Levels in a Sample of 100 Children in Tehran. Clinical Medicine Insights: Pediatrics. 2019;13:1179556518825451.
13. Pirkle JL, Brody DJ, Gunter EW, Kramer RA, Paschal DC, Flegal KM, et al. The decline in blood lead levels in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Jama. 1994;272(4):284-91.
- Abstract Viewed: 0 times
- e23 Downloaded: 0 times