Comparison of death anxiety, self-concept and attitudes to old age in the elderly living on their own, residing in nursing homes full-time or part-time, or living with extended families in Kermanshah, Iran
Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences,
Vol. 23 No. 1 (2018),
2 March 2019
Background and Objective: Old age is an important period of life, and paying attention to the issues and needs of this course is a social necessity. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare death anxiety, self-concept and attitudes to old age in the elderly living on their own, residing in nursing homes full-time or part-time, or living with extended families in Kermanshah, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and causal-comparative study, the statistical population consisted of the elderly living on their own, residing in nursing homes full-time or part-time, or living with extended families in Kermanshah, Iran over 2016-2017. A total of 304 subjects were selected through random sampling and convenience sampling. As for data collection, three questionnaires were employed: Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (1970), Beck’s Self-concept Inventory (1990), and Kogan's Attitudes toward Older People Scale (KAOPS) (1961).
Results: The mean scores of just death and general factor of the variable of death anxiety and the mean scores of negative and positive attitudes of the elderly residing in nursing homes full-time were lower than those of other groups. In addition, the mean score of self-concept of the elderly living on their own was higher than those of other groups.
Discussion and Conclusion: The levels of death anxiety and attitudes towards old age in the elderly residing in nursing homes were lower than those in other groups. It was also concluded that the level of self-concept of the elderly living on their own was higher than those of other groups.
- Death anxiety
- Attitudes towards old age
How to Cite
Pampel FC. Rights of the elderly. New York, 2008.
Fang S., Long J., Tan R., Mai H., Lu W., Yan F., Peng, J. A multicentre assessment of malnutrition, nutritional risk, and application of nutritional support among hospitalized patients in Guangzhou hospitals. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013; 22: 54-59.
Kaisa E., Sirpa H., & Irma N. Is Loneliness Associated with Malnutrition in Older People? Internat J of Geront. 2016; 10(1): 43-45.
Leibing A., Guberman N., & Wiles J. Liminal homes: Older people, loss of capacities, and the present future of living spaces. J of Agi Stud. 2016; 37(2): 10-19.
Goldzweig G., Baider L., Andritsch E., & Rottenberg Y. Hope and social support in elderly patients with cancer and their partners: an actor–partner interdependence model. J Futu Oncol. 2016; 12(24): 2801-2809.
Kakabariya K. and Moazi-Nezhad M. The relationship between age and meaning in life with the death anxiety in retired elderly men and women. J of Agi Psycho.2016; 2 (1): 37-47. (in persian).
Mohammadian, M . & Bakhshandeh Gh . Investigating the Factors Affecting the Attitude and intention of green buyers. The Scientific and Research Series of Management Studies (Improvement and Development), Twenty-Second Period. 2014; 75, 39-68 (in persian).
Harrison T., Blozis S. & Stuifbergen A. Longitudinal predictors of attitudes toward ageing among women with multiple sclerosis. J Psycho and Agei. 2008; 23: 823-832.
Foroughiyan M., Moghaddam S. Mohammadi Shahbolaghi L.& Fazlollah A. 2015. Lost Dignity: The prevailing perception of aging in the elderly. Second International Conference on Psychology, Education and Lifestyle. (in persian).
Rezaei A., Khairkhahan N., Akbari A., Abdollahi M. Comparison of cognitive triangle in the elderly living in a home and nursing home. Salar Issue. 2015; 10 (3). (in persian).
Loewy M. Aging in the Americas. Perspect Health. 2004; 1: 1-9.
Poulsen AA., Ziviani JM. & Cuskelly M. General self-concept and life satisfaction for boys with differing levels of physical coordination: The role of goal orientations and leisure participation. Human Movement Science. 2006; 25(6): 839-60.
Stojiljković S., Todorović J., Digic G.& Dosković Z. Teachers’ self-concept and empathy. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2014; 116:875-859.
Ferro MA.& Boyle MH. Self-concept among youth with a chronic illness: A meta-analytic review. Health Psychol. 2013; 32(8): 839.
Greguol M., Gobbi E.& Carraro A. Physical activity practice, body image and visual impairment: A comparison between Brazilian and Italian children and adolescents. Res Dev Disabil. 2014; 35(1):21-26.
Mahboubi M., Etemadi M., Khorasani A., Qasiasi M. & Afkar A .(2012). The Relationship between spiritual health and social anxiety in chemical war veterans, J of MilitMedicine. 2012; 14(3): 186-191(in persian).
Sertyp Zadeh A, Ali Akbari Dehkordi, M, Tabaeeyan R, The Effectiveness of Therapeutic Spirituality on the Death Anxiety of the Elderly Living in the Nursing Home. Journal of Psychology and Religion . 2016;36 :57-70
Kakabaraei k, Moazinejad M, The Relationship Between Finding Meaning in Life and Demographic Characteristics with Death Anxiety in the Elderly. Journal of Aging Psychology.2016;2(1):37-47
JahangiriZadeh P, Khodabakhshi Koolaee A. The relationship between self-concept, life satisfaction and hope among retired and housewife older adults’ women. joge. 2016; 1 (1) :19-28
Rezaei A M, Kheir Khahan N, Akbari Balootbangan A, Abdollahi M. Comparison of Cognitive Triad in the Elderly Residing at Nursing Care and Home. sija. 2015; 10 (3) :82-89
Ahmadi, Baqir (2015). Comparison of Quality of Life, Mental Health and Death Anxiety in retired elderly people in education and elderly people aged 60-75 years old in Marvdasht. Master's thesis, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch
Mehri Nia Siiboni, F. Abolghasemi, SH. (2014) Comparison of Death Anxiety and Psychological Death in the Elderly People Living in Residential Care Centers in Rasht. First National Conference on Educational Sciences and Psychology.
Naderi F, Safarzadeh S. Compairson death anxiety, satisfaction with life, worry and hope in handicapped agedes some bodies dwelling in Aged House and some bodies dwelling in families.journal of social psychology.2014; 2(32):81-98
Nouhi E, Karimi T, Iranmanesh S. Comparing Fear of Death of the Elderly Settled in Elderly’s Home and Inhabited in City Houses of Isfahan. sija. 2014; 8 (4) :24-31
Barzanchh atry Sh.(1998). A Comparative Study on the Attitude of the Elderly Residents of the Family and Sara to Elderly and its Relationship with its Social and Health Status in Sanandaj, 1998. Thesis of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Hicran Bektag ,Öznur Körükcü & Kamile Kabukcuoğlu. (2017). Undercover fear of elderly people in nursing homes: Death anxiety and depression. Journal of Human Science. Volume: 14 Issue: 1.
Missler M , Stroebe M, Geurtsen L, Mastenbroek M, Chmoun S, van der Houwen K.(2012). Exploring death anxiety among elderly people: a literature review and empirical investigation. Omega (Westport). 64(4):357-79.
Stephen J, Depaola a, Melody Griffin a Jenne R, Young a & Robert A, Neimeyer b.(2010) Death anxiety and attitudes toward the elderly among older adults: the role of gender and ethnicity. a Auburn University Montgomery, Montgomery,Alabama, USA b University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, USA Published online.
Azaiza F, Ron P, Shoham M, Gigini I. Death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. Death Stud. 2010;34(4):351-64.
Ron, Pnina. (2010). Elderly People's Death and Dying Anxiety: A Comparison between Elderly Living within the Community and in Nursing Homes in Israel. Volume: 18 issue: 1, page(s): 3-17.
Ya-Huiwen,( 2010), Religious and death anxiety, Journal of human resource and adult learning, V.6 p. 127-132.
Sijuwade PO. Attitudes towards old age: A study of the selfimage of aged. Studies on Home and Community Science. 2009;3(1):1-5.
Ron, Pnina. (2007). Elderly people’s attitudes and perceptions of aging and old age: the role of cognitive dissonance?. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2007; 22: 656–662.
Saggino R. & Kline P. Item factor analysis of the Italian version of the death anxiety scale. J of Clini Psycho. 1996; 52: 329-333.
Rejeh N., Heravi-Karimooi M., Montazeri A., Foroughan M. & Vaismoradi M. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Kogan's Attitudes Toward Older People Scale. Japan J of Nurs Scie. 2012; 9(2): 216-22.
Beck, A.T., SteerR.A., Epstin N. & Brown B. Beck self-concept test. Psychol assess: 1990; 2(2): 191-197.
Rezapoor M., Reyhani Kivi Y. & Khabaz M. & Abootorabi Kashani P. Comparison expresses the relationship between the components of emotion and self-concept of students. Applied Psychol Q. 2010; 1(13): 40-51
Pallant J. Survival manual: a step by step guide to data analysis using the spss program, 4th ed, open university press Milton Keynes, UK, USA, p418.
Ismat N., Karimi Ta. & Iranmansh S.. Comparison of fear of death in the elderly living in homes with elderly living in the elderly homes of Isfahan. Elderly (Iran's Elderly Magazine), Eighth, Thirty-One. 2013 (in persian).
Madnawat A.V.S. & Kachhawa P.S. Age, gender, and living circumstances: Discriminating older adults on death anxiety.Death Studies. 2007; 31(8):763-769.
Zarati M., Haghani M., Khodadadi Ja. Comparison of depression and death anxiety in elderly residents and non-residents in nursing homes, J of Nur. 2016; 29(102): 45-54 (in persian).
Mehrinia Sibbani F. & Abolghasemi SH. Comparison of Death Anxiety and psychological death in the elderly people living in residential care centers and residents of Rasht township. First National Conference on Educational Sciences and Psychology. 2014. (in persian).
Fortner B.V. & Neimeyer R.A. Death anxiety in older adults: A quantitative review. Death Studies. 1999; 23(5): 387-411.
Williams K.N. & Warren C.A.B. Communication in assisted living. Journal of aging studies. 2009; 23(1): 24-36.
Snyder C.R. & Lopez S.J. Oxford handbook of positive psychology. Oxford University Press, USA. 2009.
Galatzer-Levy I.R. & Bonanno G.A. Optimism and death predicting the course and consequences of depression trajectories in response to heart attack. J Psycho Scie. 2014; 25(12), 2177-2188.
Jobin J., Wrosch C. & Scheier M.F. Associations between dispositional optimism and diurnal cortisol in a community sample: When stress is perceived as higher than normal. J Heal psycho. 2014; 33(4): 382-384.
Gison A., Rizza F., Bonassi S., Donati V. & Giaquinto S. Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson’s disease outpatients under rehabilitation. J Functil neuro. 2015; 30(2): 105-108.
Ramazankhani A., Mohammadi G., Akrami F. & Zainali Ma. A Survey on Knowledge, attitude and practice of the elderly on the healthy life style of elderly in Tehran. Quarterly J of Shah Behe Univ of Medi Sci. 2013; 1(1): 5-1(in persian).
Samadi S., Bayat A., Taheri M., Joneid B.S. & Roozbahani N. Attitude and practice of eldery towards lifestyle during aging. J of Qazvin Univ of Medi Sci spring 2007; 11(1):83-84 (In Persian).
Pänkäläinen M., Kerola T., Kampman O., Kauppi M. & Hintikka J. Pessimism and risk of death from coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older Finns: an eleven-year follow-up study. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16(1): 1124.
Moradi A. & Shariatmadar A. Comparison of Death Anxiety and Loneliness in Elderly with Optimistic and Cynical Orientation. J of Agi Psycho. 2016; 2, (2).
Asayesh H., Ghorbani M., Parvorush M., Rahmani M., Anaraki H., Ansari H., Mansourian M., Rezapour A., Sharifi F. & Mohammadi R. A survey on the attitude of general practitioners toward the aging phenomenon using the Kogan questionnaire. J of Diabe and Metabo of Iran. 2014; 13(6):486-479 (in persian).
Lui N.L. & Wong C.H. Junior doctors’ attitudes towards older adults and its correlates in a tertiary-care public hospital. Anna acad of medi. 2009; 2(38):125-129.
Celik S.S., Kapucu S., Tuna Z. & Akkus Y. Views and attitudes of nursing students towards ageing and older patients. Australian journal of advanced nursing. 2010; 4(27): 24-30.
JahangiriZadeh P, Khodabakhshi Koolaee A. The relationship between self-concept, life satisfaction and hope among retired and housewife older adults’ women. joge. 2016; 1 (1) :19-28. (in persian).
Lodi-Smith J, Roberts BW. Getting to Know Me: Social role experiences and age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood. Journal of personality. 2010; 78(5): 1383- 1410.
Khodabakhshi Koolaee A, Hosseinian S, Falsafinejad M. Comparing of coping stress strategies and self –concept between Married educated women with job and without job. J of Care er & Organi- zational. 2014; 6(18):9-21. (in persian).
the Effect iveness of Structured Group Reminiscence on the Enhancement of Elderly's Positive Self – Concept
- Abstract Viewed: 0 times
- PDF Downloaded: 0 times