Spiritual Health in the Iranian Elderly: A Systematic Review
Background and Objective: Considering the increase in the elderly population of the country, it is essential to pay attention to different aspects of their health including their spiritual health and the factors affecting it. The present study is an attempt to achieve a comprehensive outlook of the status of spiritual health in the Iranian elderly and the influential factors in this regard.
Methods: This is a systematic review and search. At the end of July, 2019, English and Persian articles were searched and read on the PubMed, Google Scholar, Iranian journals database, Jahad Daneshgahi Database Center, and Noormags using the keywords ‘elderly’, ‘spiritual well-being’, ‘elderly’, ‘older people’, ‘older adult’, ‘aged’, ‘senior’, ‘Iran’, and ‘spiritual health’. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 34 related articles were included in the study. The authors reported no conflicts of interest in the present study.
Results: Out of the articles included in the study, 17 articles had examined the relationship between spiritual health and psychological factors, seven studies had described the status of spiritual health, four had examined the relationship between spiritual health and the quality of life and three studies had studied the relationship between successful old age, prayers and blood sugar control. Three studies were interventional examining the effect of telling memories, spiritual care and spiritual intervention on spiritual health of the elderly. Furthermore, in more than 90% of the studies, Palotzin and Ellison’s Spiritual Health questionnaire had been used for assessing spiritual health and in most of the studies the spiritual health score has been evaluated as medium.
Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be stated that promoting spiritual health in the elderly can be effective in improving their mental health, quality of life and sense of satisfaction in life. The results related to the relationship between demographic features and spiritual health were paradoxical in some cases. Therefore, there is a need to develop and use a more appropriate instrument well-suited to this age group and the Iranian-Islamic culture for evaluating and assessing spiritual health in the elderly.
Please cite this article as: Kashanimovahhed B, Hosseinian-sarajehloo F, Bahrami AR, Shokri-Khoubestani M, Abdoljabari M.Spiritual Health in the Iranian Elderly: A Systematic Review. Journal of Pizhūhish dar dīn va salāmat. 2020;6(2):129-147. https://doi.org/10.22037/jrrh.v6i2.26870
Kazemi N, Sajjadi H, Bahrami G. Quality of Life in Iranian Elderly. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019; 13(5):518-33. (Full Text in Persian)
Statistical center of Iran. Census results 1395. https://www.amar.org.ir/
Mohammadi E, Allahyari T, Darvishpoor Kakhaki A, Saraei H. Determining Psychometric Properties of
Iranian Active Aging Measurement Instrument. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2018; 12(4):414-29. (Full Text in Persian)
Kashanimovahhed B, Shahbazpour H, Davoodzadeh SK, Molaei P, Molamahmoodi M. The relationship between regular physical activity with spiritual intelligence and psychological well-being among the elderly in Tehran. Res Relig Health. 2018;42(2):81-93. (Full Text in Persian)
Ghasemi S, Keshavarz Mohammadi N, Mohammadi Shahboulaghi F, Ramezankhani A, Mehrabi Y. Physical Health Status and Frailty Index in Community Dwelling Older Adults in Tehran. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019; 13(5):652-65. (Full Text in Persian)
Khalili F, Sum S, Asayesh H. Spiritual Health Among Isfehanian Elderly People. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2013; 8(1):16-23. (Full Text in Persian)
Atashzadeh-Shoorideh F, Karamkhani M, Shokri-Khubestani M, Pishgooie SAH. The relationship between Nurses’ spiritual health and their caring behaviors. Res Relig Health. 2017;3 (1):5-15. (Full Text in Persian)
Jorna M, Ball K, Salmon J. Effects of a holistic health program on women's physical activity and mental and spiritual health. Journal of science and medicine in sport. 2006; 9(5):395-401.
Fisher J. Development and application of a spiritual well-being questionnaire called SHALOM. Religions. 2010;1(1):105-21.
Saydshohadai M, Heshmat S, Seidfatemi N, Haghani H, Mehrdad N. The Spiritual Health of Seniors Living in Sanitarium and Home Residents. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2013;26(81):11-20. (Full Text in Persian)
Atashzadeh-Shoorideh F, Shokri-Khubestani M, Fani M, Abdoljabbari M. Searching the concept of spiritual well-being and the indices of healthy individuals in different religions and creeds. Journal of Reaserch on Religion & Health. 2016;2(4):63-71.
Sheehan MN. Spirituality and the care of people with life-threatening illnesses. Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management. 2005; 9(3):109-13.
Amiri P, Abbasi M, Gharibzadeh S, Zarghani NH, Azizi F. Designation and psychometric assessment of a comprehensive spiritual health questionnaire for Iranian populations. Medical Ethics Journal. 2015;9(30):25-56. (Full Text in Persian)
Darvishpour Kakhki A. Spiritual well-being in the Iranian older people: A qualitative study. Medical History Journal. 2016;7(25):11-32. (Full Text in Persian)
Chan MF, Chung L, Lee AS, Wong WK, Lee G, Lau CY, et al. Investigating spiritual care perceptions and practice patterns in Hong Kong nurses: results of a cluster analysis. Nurse education today. 2006;26(2):139-50.
Saidimehr S, Gravandi S, Ezadmehr A, Mohammadi Mj, Hasani M. Study of Relationship between Spiritual Health and Depression among Elderly People. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. 2015; 23(3):16-25. (Full Text in Persian)
Organization World Health. Knowledge translation on ageing and health: A framework for policy development; 2012.
Azizi F. Spiritual health and medical care. Medical History Journal. 2015;6(21):131-48. (Full Text in Persian)
Goli M, Maddah SB, Dalvandi A, Hosseini MA, Rahgozar M. The Relationship between Successful Aging and Spiritual Health of the Elderly. Journal of Nursing Education. 2017;4(5):16-21. (Full Text in Persian)
Rezaie Shahsavarloo Z, Taghadosi M, Mousavi M, Lotfi M, Harati K. The relationship between spiritual well-being & religious attitudes with life satisfaction in elderly cancer patients. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing. 2016;4(1):47-55. (Full Text in Persian)
Kavoosian N, Hosseinzadeh K, Jaliseh HK, Karboro A. The relationship between spiritual health and loneliness among the elderly in Karaj-2016. Journal of Research on Religion and Health. 2018;4(2):7-15. (Full Text in Persian)
Rezaie Shahsavarloo Z, Lotfi M, Taghadosi M, Mousavi M, Yousefi Z, Amirkhosravi N. Relationship between components of Spiritual well-being with hope and life satisfaction in elderly cancer patients in Kashan, 2013. Journal of Geriatric Nursing. 2015;1(2):43-54. (Full Text in Persian)
Ilali E, Taraghi Z, Yazdani J, Golmohammadi M, Savasari R, Mosavi Jarrahi A. The Relationship Between Praying and Spiritual Health Among Iranian Older People With Cerebrovascular Accidents. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016;11(3):424-31. (Full Text in Persian)
Hedayati E, Hazrati M, Momen Nasab M, Shokoohi H, Afkari F. The Relationship Between Spiritual Well-being and Anxiety of Aged People Admitted in Coronary Care Units. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016;11(3):432-9. (Full Text in Persian)
Bagheri H, Sadeghi M, Esmaeili N, Naeimi Z. Relationship between spiritual health and depression and quality of sleep in the older adults in Shahroud. Journal of Gerontology. 2016;1(1):55-62. (Full Text in Persian)
Sadrollahi A, Khalili Z. Spiritual Well-being and associated factors among the elderly population in Kashan. Journal of Geriatric Nursing. 2015;1(2):94-104. (Full Text in Persian)
Jadidi A, Farahaninia M, Janmohammadi S, Haghani H. The Relationship between Spiritual Well-Being and Quality of Life among Elderly People Residing in Kahrizak Senior House. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2011;24(72):48-56. (Full Text in Persian)
Memari A, Dalvandi A, Mohammadi Shahbolaghi F, Fallahi Khoshknab M, Biglarian A. Impact of Spiritual Care on Spiritual Health of Elderly Residents of Kahrizak Nursing Home. Iranian Journal of Rehabilitation Research in Nursing. 2016;3(1):1-8. (Full Text in Persian)
Bastani F, Pourmohammadi A, Haghani H. Relationship between Perceived Stress with Spiritual Health among Older Adults with Diabetes Registered to the Association of Diabetes Prevention and Control in Babol, 2013. Hayat. 2014;20(3):6-18. (Full Text in Persian)
Abedi S, Foroughan M, Khanjani MS, Bakhshi EA, Farhadi A. Relationship Between Meaning of Life and Spiritual Well-being in the Older People Residing in Nursing Homes Shemiranat, 2014. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016;11(3):456-65. (Full Text in Persian)
Ekhtiary-Sadegh M, Imani-Naeini M, MirzaMohammadi MH. The Prediction of Loneliness among the Kermanshahi Elderly Based on Self-Compassion, Spirituality, and Islamic Lifestyle. J Res Relig Health. 2018;4(2):69- 80. (Full Text in Persian)
Golparvar M. Predicting senile people’s spiritual well being through psychological capital components. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology.2015,16(3):4-12. (Full Text in Persian)
Noghani F, Navab E, Mehran A, Yaghobi L. The Effects of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Loneliness and Spiritual Well- being among Residents of Kahrizak Nursing Home. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research. 2018;13(1):47-56. (Full Text in Persian)
Jafari E, Hajloo N, Faghani R, Khazan K. The relationship between spiritual well-being, hardiness, and mental health in the elderly. 2012;10(6):10-15. (Full Text in Persian)
Yadegari R, Hayati M, Yousefi Afrashteh M. The Relationship Between Spiritual Health and Religious Orientation with Death Obsession in Elderly: The Mediation role of Ambiguity Tolerance. Aging Psychology. 2018;4(1):39-50. (Full Text in Persian)
Ghadampour E, Moshrefi S. Relationship between Spiritual Health, Mental Well-Being and Quality of Life with Death Anxiety in the Elderly. Aging Psychology. 2017;3(2):97-106. (Full Text in Persian)
Emamirad AM, Amiri H. The Relationship between Spiritual Health and Life Expectancy with Death Anxiety in Telecommunications retirees club. Aging Psychology. 2018;4(3):251-61.
Farhadi M, Ramezani V, Ghareh khani A. Elderly mental health: The role of spiritual well-being and hope. Psychological Health Research. 1388;2(10). (Full Text in Persian)
Afrasiabi M, Khorsand M, Mafi M. Spiritual health and quality of life in the elderly. Contemporary Psychology. 2017;12(Suppl):185-8. (Full Text in Persian)
Jadidi A, Farahaninia M, Janmohammadi S, Haghani H. Spiritual well being of elderly people resident in nursing home. Journal of Geriatric Nursing. 2015;1(2):22-30. (Full Text in Persian)
Aslani Y, Hosseini R, Alijanpour-Aghamaleki M, Javanbakhtian R, Borhaninejad V. Spiritual health and life satisfaction in older adults in Shahrekord hospitals, 2013. Journal of Clinical Nursing and Midwifery. 2018;6(4):1-10. (Full Text in Persian)
Khalili Z, Sadrollahi A, Nazari R. Factors related and Spiritual Well-being among elderly referring to city parks of Khalkhal. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research. 2016;10(4):127-35. (Full Text in Persian)
Hosseiny RS, Alijanpour Agha Maleki M, Etemadifar S, Rafiei H. Religious attitudes and spiritual health among elderly inpatient adults in Shahrekord hospitals. Jorjani Biomedicine Journal. 2016;4(1):56-65. (Full Text in Persian)
Hedayati E, Hazrati M, Momennasab M, Sareh K. The effect of need-based spiritual/religious intervention on spiritual well-being and anxiety of elderly people. Holistic nursing practice. 2015;29(3):136-43. (Full Text in Persian)
Amir Mohamadi M, Borhani F, Kiani M, Almasi-Hashiani A, Naghavi B. The correlation between spiritual wellbeing and depression in elderly patients with cancer in Iran. World Family Medicine Journal: Incorporating the Middle East Journal of Family Medicine. 2017;99(5588):1-8.
Adib-Hajbaghery M, Faraji M. Comparison of Happiness and Spiritual Well-Being among the Community Dwelling Elderly and those who Lived in Sanitariums. International journal of community based nursing and midwifery. 2015;3(3):216-26. (Full Text in Persian).
Heydari-fard J, Bagheri-Nesami M, Mohammadpour RA. Association between Quality of Life and Spiritual Well-Being in Community Dwelling Elderly. Life Science Journal. 2012;9(4):3198-204. (Full Text in Persian)
Aghakhani N, Vahabzadeh D, Niroomand S, Asgarlii Z, Zaravar F. The relationship between spiritual wellbeing, anxiety and depression in old adults: A cross sectional study of Shiraz Clinics, Iran. World Family Medicine Journal: Incorporating the Middle East Journal of Family Medicine. 2018;99(5897):1-4.
Zareipour M, Khazir Z, Valizadeh R, Mahmoodi H, Ghelichi M. The Association between Spiritual Health and Blood Sugar Control in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Elderly Health Journal 2016, 2(2): 67-72.
Hedayati E, Momennasab M, Sareh K. The Effect of Need-Based Spiritual/Religious Intervention on Spiritual Well-Being and Anxiety of Elderly People. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2015;29(3):136-43. (Full Text in Persian)
Bastani F, Pourmohammadi A, Haghani H. Relationship between Perceived Stress with Spiritual Health among Older Adults with Diabetes Registered to the Association of Diabetes Prevention and Control in Babol, 2013. Journal of hayat. 2014;20(3):6-18. (Full Text in Persian)
Khadem H, Mozafari M, Yousefi A, Hashemabad BG. The relationship between spiritual health and mental health in students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Medical History Journal. 2015;7(25):33-50. (Full Text in Persian)
Bonomi AE, Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Martin M. Validation of the United States' version of the world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL) instrument. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2000;53(1):1-12.
Khorashadizadeh F, Heydari A, Heshmati Nabavi F, Mazlom S, Ebrahimi M. Concept analysis of spiritual health based on Islamic teachings. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2015;28(97):42-55. (Full Text in Persian)
O’Connor M, Guilfoyle A, Breen L, Mukhardt F, Fisher C. Relationships between quality of life, spiritual well-being, and psychological adjustment styles for people living with leukaemia: An exploratory study. Mental health, religion and culture. 2007;10(6):631-47.
Maneesriwongul W, Dixon JK. Instrument translation process: a methods review. Journal of advanced nursing. 2004;48(2):175-86.
Abbasi M, Azizi F, Shamsi Gooshki E, Naseri Rad M, Akbari Lakeh M. Conceptual Definition and Operationalization of Spiritual Health: A Methodological Study. Medical Ethics Journal. 2012;6(20):11-44.
De Carli L, Kolankiewicz B,A.C. Perceptions and experiences of elderly residents in asylum. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2014;48:81-6.
Lee DT, Woo J, Mackenzie AE. A review of older people’s experiences with residential care placement. Journal of advanced nursing. 2002;37(1):19-27.
Under Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (June 20, 2003), cience-research Journal of Pizhūhish dar dīn va salāmat are fully compliant with open access mandates, by publishing its articles under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). Authors retain copyright of their work and can deposit their publication in any repository. This means that articles can be freely reused by the author and others as long as the article is properly cited. Published articles in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Journals can be deposited immediately into an online repository without any cost. This articles can be, printed, archived in a collection, included in course-packs, and distributed without restrictions. Please read the full Creative Commons License for further information.