The Prediction of Marital Forgiveness Based on Emotional Regulation, Attachment to God and Religion-based Coping Strategy in Women with Domestic Violence Experience

Keywords: Attachment to God, Domestic Violence, Excitement, Marital Forgiveness, Religion-based Coping Strategy


For downloading the full-text of this article please click here.

Background and Objective: The structure of some families provides conditions for violence against women. Violence threatens the health and security of the family. The purpose of this study was to predict marital forgiveness based on emotional regulation, attachment to God, and religion-based coping strategies in women with experience of family violence.

Methods: This is a descriptive and correlational study. The statistical population included all women referring to counseling and psychotherapy centers in Tehran in 2018. A total of 300 people were selected by simple random sampling. The research instruments included marital forgiveness scale, cognitive-emotional adjustment scale, attachment to God's scale, and religious coping scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient and regression analysis. In this study, all the ethical considerations have been observed and no conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Results: The results of the present study showed that emotional adjustment variables (P<0.05, r=0.61), attachment to God (P<0.05, r=0.48), and religion-based coping strategies (P<0.05, r=0.52) have a significant corrrelation with marital forgiveness in women experiencing domestic violence and can significantly predict 41.8 percent of the variance in marital forgiveness in these women (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that religion-based coping strategy, safe attachment to God, and adjustment of excitement affect the level of marital forgiveness. Therefore, in the plans developed by the authorities, there is a need to familiarize women experiencing domestic violence with Islamic-spiritual structures and emotional management. For downloading the full-text of this article please click here.

Please cite this article as: Akhondi M, Moradinasab M, Boloorsaz-Mashhadi H, Ehsanpour F, Poraghaiee S. The Prediction of Marital Forgiveness based on Emotional Regulation, Attachment to God and Religion-based Coping Strategy in Women with Domestic Violence Experience. Journal of Pizhūhish dar dīn va salāmat. 2020;6(2):115-128.


Vachher AS, Sharma A. Domestic violence against women and their mental health status in a colony in Delhi. Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. 2010;35(3):403.

Gates DM, Gillespie GL, Succop P. Violence against nurses and its impact on stress and productivity. Nurs Econ. 2011;29(2):59-66.

Shams M, Kianfard L, Parhizkar S, Mousavizadeh A. Needs Assessment in Married Women for Designed Empowerment Program to Prevent Domestic Violence Against Women in Ahvaz. 2017; J TOLOO-E–BEHDASHT, School of Public Health, Yazd Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci. 2017; 16(1):89-100. (Full Text in Persian)

Rahpaymaelizehee S, Fallahi B, Jafri Kojouri R. The national policy of iran toward violence against women/A Política Nacional do Iran Para a ViolÊncia Contra as Mulheres. Espaço Jurídico: Journal of Law. 2015;16(2):321-32.

Sheikhbardsiri H, Khademipour G, Aminizadeh M, Fatemian R, Doustmohammadi MM. Factors Related to Domestic Violence against Female Employees in Educational Hospitals Affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Journal of Hospital. 2018;17(1):45-52. (Full Text in Persian)

Chung M-S. Relation between lack of forgiveness and depression: The moderating effect of self compassion. Psychological reports. 2016;119(3):573-85.

Fincham FD, May RW. Prayer and forgiveness: Beyond relationship quality and extension to marriage. Journal of Family Psychology. 2017; 19(22): 164-78.

Lambert N, Fincham F, DeWall C, Pond R, Beach S. Shifting toward cooperative goals: How partner-focused prayer facilitates forgiveness. Personal Relationships. 2013;20:184-97.

Solak N, Jost J, Sümer N. Effects of System Justification on Emotions in Collective Protests. 15th The Biennial Conference of the International Society for Justice Research; New York City, USA;2014.

Gilbert K, Mineka S, Zinbarg RE, Craske MG, Adam EK. Emotion regulation regulates more than emotion: Associations of momentary emotion regulation with diurnal cortisol in current and past depression and anxiety. Clinical Psychological Science. 2017;5(1):37-51.

Coutinho J, Ribeiro E, Ferreirinha R, Dias P. The Portuguese version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and its relationship with psychopathological symptoms. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica. 2010;37(4):145-51.

Sabatier C, Restrepo Cervantes D, Moreno Torres M, Hoyos De los Rios O, Palacio Sañudo J. Emotion Regulation in Children and Adolescents: concepts, processes and influences. Psicología desde el Caribe. 2017;34(1):101-10.

Cui L, Morris AS, Criss MM, Houltberg BJ, Silk JS. Parental psychological control and adolescent adjustment: The role of adolescent emotion regulation. Parenting.2014; 14(1):47-67.

Meyer S, Raikes HA, Virmani EA, Waters S, Thompson RA. Parent emotion representations and the socialization of emotion regulation in the family. International Journal of Behavioral Development. 2014;38(2):164-73.

Homan KJ. A mediation model linking attachment to God, self-compassion, and mental health. Mental Health, Religion & Culture. 2014;17(10):977-89.

Kirkpatrick LA. Attachment and religious representations and behavior. 2000.

Ainsworth M, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall S. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation.Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.1978.

Rashidi M, Sharif Mousavi F, Esmaeili K. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom. Health, Spirituality and Medical Ethics. 2016;3(1):18-24.

Beck R. God as a secure base: Attachment to God and theological exploration. Journal of Psychology and Theology. 2006;34(2):125-32.

Azarbaijani M. A Test for Measuring Religious Attitude in the Light of Islam. Methodology of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2002;7(29):36-61. (Full Text in Persian)

Rider KA, Terrell DJ, Sisemore TA, Hecht JE. Religious coping style as a predictor of the severity of anorectic symptomology. Eating disorders. 2014; 22(2):163-79.

Fox RB. Religious identity, religious practices, and spiritual coping in adults undergoing treatment for cancer: University of Kansas, Psychology; 2001.

Pargament KI, Ensing DS, Falgout K, Olsen H, Reilly B, Van Haitsma K, et al. God help me:(I): Religious coping efforts as predictors of the outcomes to significant negative life events. American journal of community psychology. 1990;18(6):793-824.

Guitar AE, Geher G, Kruger DJ, Garcia JR, Fisher ML, Fitzgerald CJ. Defining and distinguishing sexual and emotional infidelity. Current Psychology. 2017;36(3):434-46.

Isanejad O, Baghery A. Phenomenology of strategies of justifying infidelity: Mechanisms to cope with cognitive dissonance of marital infidelity. Journal of Family Counseling & Psychotherapy. 2017;6(2):189-207. (Full Text in Persian)

Fakhri M, Mahdavianfard R, Kimiaee SA. Prediction of the probability of divorce based on avoidant attachment, anxiety attachment and family problem solving skills. Quarterly of Counseling Culture and Psychotherapy. 2018;9(33):207-22. (Full Text in Persian)

Pollard MW, Anderson RA, Anderson WT, Jennings G. The development of a family forgiveness scale. Journal of Family Therapy. 1998;20(1):95-109.

Najafi E, Derivzeh Z, Peivastegar M. The Relationship Between Forgiveness and Marriage Satisfaction in Kermanshahi Couples Iournal Woman & Culture. 2011;3(8):96-108. (Full Text in Persian)

Goussinsky R, Livne Y. Coping with interpersonal mistreatment: the role of emotion regulation strategies and supervisor support. Journal of nursing management. 2016; 24(8):1109-18.

Rabie M, Zerehpush A, Palahang H, Zarie Mahmood Abadi H. Relationship between Components of Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders. J Res Behave Sci.2014;11(5):363-74.

Shabahang R, Besharat MA, Nikoogoftar M, Sheykhangafshe FB. Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Emotional Regulation Problems in Prediction of Celebrity Worshipamong University Students. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology. 2019;20(75):13-25. (Full Text in Persian)

Rowatt W, Kirkpatrick LA. Two dimensions of attachment to God and their relation to affect, religiosity, and personality constructs. Journal for the scientific study of religion. 2002;41(4):637-51.

Ghobary Bonab B, Haddadi Kuhsar AA, Rashidi A, Javadi S. Relationship among image of God and attachment to God with mental health in parents of exceptional children. Journal of Exceptional Children. 2012;12(3):5-14. (Full Text in Persian)

Wrosch C, Jobin J, Scheier MF. Do the emotional benefits of optimism vary across older adulthood? A life span perspective. Journal of personality. 2017;85(3):388-97.

Grezellschak S, Lincoln TM, Westermann S. Cognitive emotion regulation in patients with schizophrenia: evidence for effective reappraisal and distraction. Psychiatry research. 2015;229(1-2):434-9.

Haghighi F. Correlation between religious coping and depression in cancer patients. Psychiatria Danubina. 2013;25(3):236-40. (Full Text in Persian)

Elumelu TN, Asuzu CC, Akin-Odanye EO. Impact of active coping, religion and acceptance on quality of life of patients with breast cancer in the department of radiotherapy, UCH, Ibadan. BMJ supportive & palliative care. 2015;5(2):175-80.

Kent BV. Attachment to God, religious tradition, and firm attributes in workplace commitment. The Journal of social psychology. 2017;157(4):485-501.

Bradshaw M, Kent BV. Prayer, attachment to God, and changes in psychological well-being in later life. Journal of aging and health. 2018;30(5):667-9.

Original Article