Effectiveness of Self-monitoring Training by Islamic Contemplation Approach on Self-restraint among Female Students of Tehran University



Contemplation, Self-monitoring, Self-restraint, Students


For downloading the full-text of this article please click here.

Background and Objective: University students are the intellectual human resources of any society and they are the prospects of their country. Paying attention to their mental, spiritual, social, cultural and physical health will provide the ground for realization of a dynamic and healthy life in the future. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of self-monitoring training using the Islamic contemplation approach on self-restraint among female students of Tehran University.

Methods: This study adopted a quasi-experimental pretest and posttest control group design. The statistical population consisted of all students of University of Tehran who were studying in the educational year 2017. A sample of 30 female students from Tehran University was selected using available sampling method. They were randomly assigned to two experimental (15) and a control group (15). Participants in the experimental group received an Islamic-contemplation self-monitoring training program in eight (one-and-a-half-hour) sessions. A self-restraint questionnaire Gatfordson and Hirschi was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using covariance analysis. In this study, all the ethical considerations have been observed and no conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Results: The results showed that the female students in the experimental group had significantly higher self-control scores than the control group on the post-test and the hypothesis of the study concerning the effectiveness of self-monitoring training by Islamic contemplation approach on self-restraint of Tehran University students was confirmed (P>0/01).

Conclusion: Based on the findings, group religious-spiritual intervention had a positive effect on the internal and self-control power of female students, and this intervention could be used to improve the psychological resources in increasing students’ self-restraint.

For downloading the full-text of this article please click here.

Please cite this article as: Nosrati F, Jafari-Ardi S, Ghobari-Bonab B. Effectiveness of Self-monitoring Training by Islamic Contemplation Approach on Self-restraint among Female Students of Tehran University. Journal of Pizhūhish dar dīn va salāmat. 2020;6(2):20-36. https://doi.org/10.22037/jrrh.v6i2.22988


Rezaee R. The effects of self-assertation Skills on Self-Control and Spiritual Intelligence. Iran, zahedan: Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Sistan and Baluchestan; 2012. (Full Text in Persian)

Mohases M. The Attitude of the Holy Quran towards Restraint in Family Behaviors. Qur'anic Knowledge. 2015;6(23):35-57. (Full Text in Persian)

Heidarzadegan A, Kazemi Y, Sanatizadeh F. Relationship among Educational Managers Self- control, Creativity and Leadership Styles. Journal of Educational Psychology Studies. 2013;9(16):39-54. (Full Text in Persian)

Darbandi SA, Moedefar S. Investigating the Attitudes and Attitudes of Citizens of Tehran. Iranian Journal of Sociology. 2006;7(3):34-58. (Full Text in Persian)

Qadiri MH. Khodkontoroli Koodak; Khamir Mayeh Khishtan-dari Akhlaghi (Taghva). Bi-Quarterly Research Scientific Journal in Educational Jurisprudence studies. 2010;5(11):87-116. (Full Text in Persian)

Cohen JS, Edmunds JM, Brodman DM, Benjamin CL, Kendall PC. Using self-monitoring: Implementation of collaborative empiricism in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2013;20(4):419-28.

Samadi Z, Mirnasab M, Fathi-Azar E. The Effectiveness of self-Monitoring Strategy on Students' Social Anxiety Disorder. Bimonthly of Education Strategies in Medical Sciences. 2018;11(1):92-101. (Full Text in Persian)

Cheraghmollaee L, Khosravi Z, Banijamali SS. Efficacy Of Training Self-Mointoring sterategies to 6-12 Year old girls with ADHD symptoms. Quartery Clinical Psychology Studies. 2011;6(4):37-56. (Full Text in Persian)

Groen Y, Mulder LJ, Wijers AA, Minderaa RB, Althaus M. Methylphenidate improves diminished error and feedback sensitivity in ADHD: An evoked heart rate analysis. Biological psychology. 2009;82(1):45-53.

Esmaeili A, Akbarzadeh E, Mohammadi Y, Nemati M, Raeisoon M. Relationship between IQ, cultural intelligence and self-monitoring in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. 2016;23(3):268-76. (Full Text in Persian)

Seyyedi F, Badri R. The Effect of Self-monitoring of Attention Training on Mathematical Problem Solving of Elementary Male Students with a Learning Disability in Math. Journal of Instruction and Evaluation. 2015;8(29):9-20. (Full Text in Persian)

Puteh M, Ibrahim M. The usage of self-regulated learning strategies among form four students in the Mathematical problem-solving context: A case study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010;8:446-52.

Montague M, Applegate B, Marquard K. Cognitive strategy instruction and mathematical problem-solving performance of students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice. 1993.

Maag JW, Reid R, DiGangi SA. Differential effects of self‐monitoring attention, accuracy, and productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 1993;26(3):329-44.

Wood DA, Rosenberg MS, Carran DT. The effects of tape-recorded self-instruction cues on the mathematics performance of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 1993;26(4):250-8.

Hannabuss S. Psychotherapy and Spirituality: Crossing the Line Between Therapy and Religion. Library Review. 2001.

Karimi A, Bahreinian SA, Ghobari Bonab B. An Investigation of the Impact of Meditation on Anxiety and Depression of Female Students. Clinical Psychology Studies. 2012;3(9):103-18. (Full Text in Persian)

McCullough ME, Willoughby BL. Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological bulletin. 2009;135(1):69.

Zumbrunn S, Tadlock J, Roberts ED. Encourage Self Regulated Learning in the Classroom. Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC). 2011;13(2):1-28.

Scheithauer MC, Kelley ML. Self-monitoring by college students with ADHD: The impact on academic performance. Journal of attention disorders. 2017;21(12):1030-9.

Labuhn AS, Zimmerman BJ, Hasselhorn M. Enhancing students’ self-regulation and mathematics performance: The influence of feedback and self-evaluative standards. Metacognition and learning. 2010;5(2):173-94.

Kanani Z, Haghgoo H, Rezasoltani P. The Effect of Self-monitoring Training on the Aacademic Achievement of the Students with Dyslexia. Community Health Journal. 2017;8(4):29-37. (Full Text in Persian)

Mason LH. Teaching students who struggle with learning to think before, while, and after reading: Effects of self-regulated strategy development instruction. Reading & Writing Quarterly. 2013;29(2):124-44. (Full Text in Persian)

Mosavi Moghadam SR, Chegeni ME. Study the relationship between religious attitudes, self-control and spiritual health between Basij sisters, in the city of Shoush. Journal of reaserch on religion & health. 2015;1(1):40-7. (Full Text in Persian)

Kazemi Y, Nikmanesh Z. Relationship of religiosity, Self-Control and Drug Abuse. Nursing and Midwifery Journal. 2011;9(3):174-9. (Full Text in Persian)

Soltanifar A. Meditation in Islamic and Western Cultures. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health. 2013;15(60):295-300. (Full Text in Persian)

Hölzel BK, Carmody J, Vangel M, Congleton C, Yerramsetti SM, Gard T, et al. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry research: neuroimaging. 2011;191(1):36-43.





Original Article