• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Amblyopia Treatment Knowledge Cognition of Iranian Practitioners in 2012.

Zhale Rajavi, masoumeh kalantarion, Bahareh Kheiri, Shadi Akbarian, Pegah Farzam




Background: Amblyopia is considered as one of the most prevalent vision problems in pediatrics age (1-5%). Recently, new methods in amblyopia treatment were reported in Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS’).The objective of this study was to recognize amblyopia treatment knowledge of Iranian ophthalmologists and optometrists which are responsible for amblyopia treatment in our and other countries.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed during the Iranian Society of Ophthalmology annual meeting in Tehran in 2012 through questionnaire containing demographic information and 20 closed-answer questions based on ATS results. The questions were classified into seven categories and the sum of correct scores was 100. Optometrists and pediatric ophthalmologists were considered as the group 1 (153 participants), other practitioners (general ophthalmologists and other subspecialists) were regarded as the group 2 (256 participants). Criteria for inadequate, fair and good knowledge were considered by scores of < 50, 50 to 70, and >70 respectively.

Results: Overall, 409 out of a total of 600 questionnaires were completed (response rate: 68.1%).  Mean scores of the group 1 were significantly higher than the group 2 in all 7 categories of questions and in 5 of them the differences were statistically significant. The worst and best scores were related to prescription of atropine (12%) and visual acuity improvement with glasses alone (93%), respectively. Scores for other questions were about 50%. There was no relationship between practice status and the number of referral amblyopic cases per week with the level of knowledge. In all categories except prescription of Atropine and recurrence, mean scores of females were more than the male participants.

Conclusion: knowledge about amblyopia therapy seems to be overall inadequate and should be improved by more education. We suggest paying more attention to new modified methods of amblyopia treatment and increased discussion of such method in annual and CME meetings.




Negrel AD, Maul E, Pokharel GP, Zhao J, Ellwein LB. Refractive Error Study in Children: sampling and measurement methods for a multi-country survey. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129(4):421-6.

Arnold RW. Amblyopia and strabismus prevalence. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(2):365-6.

Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study Group. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in African American and Hispanic children ages 6 to 72 months the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(7):1229-36.

Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, Mohammad K. The prevalence of refractive errors among schoolchildren in Dezful, Iran.Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91(3):287-92.

Holmes JM, Clarke MP. Amblyopia. Lancet. 2006;22;367(9519):1343-51.

Pai A, Mitchell P. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(10):2043-4.

Friedman DS1, Repka MX, Katz J, Giordano L, Ibironke J, Hawse P, Tielsch JM. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in white and African American children aged 6 through 71 months the Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(11):2128-34.

Yekta A1, Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Dehghani C, Ostadimoghaddam H, Heravian J, et al. The prevalence of anisometropia, amblyopia and strabismus in schoolchildren of Shiraz, Iran. Strabismus. 2010;18(3):104-10.

Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of atropine vs. patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(3):268-78.

Repka MX1, Cotter SA, Beck RW, Kraker RT, Birch EE, Everett DF, et al. A randomized trial of atropine regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(11):2076-85.

Scheiman MM1, Hertle RW, Beck RW, Edwards AR, Birch E, Cotter SA, et al. Randomized trial of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 years. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123(4):437-47.

Wallace DK1, Chandler DL, Beck RW, Arnold RW, Bacal DA, Birch EE, Felius J, et al. Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children three to less than 10 years of age. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144(4):487-96.

Holmes JM, Kraker RT, Beck RW, Birch EE, Cotter SA, Everett DF, et al. A randomized trial of prescribed patching regimens for treatment of severe amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(11):2075-87.

Repka MX1, Beck RW, Holmes JM, Birch EE, Chandler DL, Cotter SA, et al. A randomized trial of patching regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(5):603-11.

Wallace DK1, Edwards AR, Cotter SA, Beck RW, Arnold RW, Astle WF, et al. A randomized trial to evaluate 2 hours of daily patching for strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(6):904-12.

Holmes JM1, Edwards AR, Beck RW, Arnold RW, Johnson DA, Klimek DL, et al. A randomized pilot study of near activities versus non-near activities during patching therapy for amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2005;9(2):129-36.

Holmes JM1, Beck RW, Kraker RT, Astle WF, Birch EE, Cole SR, Cotter SA, et al. Risk of amblyopia recurrence after cessation of treatment. J AAPOS. 2004;8(5):420-8.

Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Pharmacological plus optical penalization treatment for amblyopia: results of a randomized trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(1):22-30.

Scheiman MM1, Hertle RW, Kraker RT, Beck RW, Birch EE, Felius J, Holmes JM, et al. Patching vs atropine to treat amblyopia in children aged 7 to 12 years: a randomized trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(12):1634-42.

Rutstein RP, Quinn GE, Lazar EL, Beck RW, Bonsall DJ, Cotter SA, et al. A randomized trial comparing Bangerter filters and patching for the treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(5):998-1004.

Suttle CM, Wong R, Anderton PJ, Kim HJ, Kim JD, Lee MY. A survey of pediatric visual assessment by optometrists in New South Wales. Clin Exp Optom. 2003;86(1):19-33.

Khazaeni L1, Quinn GE, Davidson SL, Forbes BJ. Amblyopia treatment: 1998 versus 2004.J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2009;46(1):19-22.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v3i1.7535