School of Medicine Students' Journal https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/smsj <p><strong>The School of Medicine Students’ Journal (SMSJ) is published by the Vice Chancellor of Research, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. The SMSJ is scheduled to appear quarterly and publishes original article, case reports, editorials, short communication, and regular and systematic reviews that meet required standards and advance science. We also invite all the students in medical fields to convert their seminars to review articles and submit to SMSJ.</strong></p> <p><strong>The scientific topics of interest for the journal include, but are not limited to: Basic medical sciences, clinical research, public health, and medical education. The journal welcomes both quantitative and qualitative research.</strong></p> en-US School of Medicine Students' Journal 2676-7597 <p><span>Authors who publish with SMSJ agree to the following terms:<br /> 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License<span><ins datetime="2016-10-23T10:40"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #008080;">,</span></span></ins></span> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br /> 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br /> 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and more citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</span></p><p><span><br /></span></p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />This journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>. The Vague Position of the Dissertations in the Curriculum of the General Medical Doctorate Course https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/smsj/article/view/32124 <p>Although in the general medical doctoral training program approved by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2017, one of the professional duties of the graduates of this field is to participate in all educational and research activities approved by the competent authorities. However, in the main competencies and skills expected by the graduates of this field, there is no reference to research competencies (1).</p> <p>In this program, there are 293 credits, of which six are related to the dissertation. The study of this program shows that only the courses "Research Methods and Evidence-Based Medicine", "Medical Statistics", and "Principles of Epidemiology" are about how to conduct research, search for articles, basic principles of vital statistics, and types of studies (1).</p> <p>It is suggested that the following issues be considered before the next review of this program – <strong>Cont</strong>.</p> Minoo Yaghmaei Copyright (c) 2020 School of Medicine Students' Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2 3 1 1 10.22037/smsj.v2i3.32124 In Silico Identification of Potentially Effective Herbal Inhibitors of SARS-Cov-2 Main Protease by Virtual Screening Method https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/smsj/article/view/31997 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health emergency caused by SARS-CoV-2. Unfortunately, no effective drugs have been found to date. There is also a major need for new therapies to treat this disease. The main protease is an attractive drug target among coronaviruses due to its important role in the processing of viral RNA-translated polyproteins. Objective of This study was conducted to screen databases of herbal compounds for potential main protease inhibitors.<br><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>Natural products from 3 database banks were first tested and filtered by ADME / toxicity, then their molecular energy was minimized, and finally, they were docked into the SARS-CoV-2 main protease and compared with indinavir.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The binding energies of 6570 molecules from different herbal compounds comprising databases were tested and five of the molecules with the highest binding energies for SARS-CoV-2 main protease docking were selected and key interactions were studied.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, five herbal compounds including Sodwanone B, Cyclomulberrin, and a glycosylated derivative of kaempferol had lower docking energy compared to indinavir and were suggested for further research.</p> Amirreza Dowlati Beirami Dara Hatamabadi Sayna Iranpanah Mitrasadat Rezaei Seyed Ali Ziai Copyright (c) 2020 School of Medicine Students' Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 3 2 6 10.22037/smsj.v2i3.31997 Investigating the relationship between gastric polyp and dyspepsia in Iranian patients https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/smsj/article/view/30888 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <pre><strong>Background and aim</strong>: Chronic dyspepsia is one of the common medical problems in patients referred to internal and gastrointestinal clinics. According to the results of some studies, most patients with dyspepsia are simultaneously suffering from gastric polyps. We aimed to clarify the association of gastric polyp and dyspepsia in an Iranian population.</pre> <pre><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: We enrolled 2772 dyspeptic and 1294 non-dyspeptic subjects in this cross-sectional study, who referred to the gastrointestinal clinic at Ayatollah Taleghani Hospital in Tehran from2016 to 2018.All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy andpatients with GI malignancy, severe GI bleeding and history of GI surgery excluded from study. They were evaluated for age, sex, endoscopicfindings, gastric polyp (GP) count, size and localization, diagnosticmethods used for histology, and polyp features. The relationshipbetween gastric polyp and dyspepsia was alsoevaluated.</pre> <pre><strong>Results</strong>: In 4066 consecutive upper GI endoscopy in patients with and without dyspepsia, 129 patients (3.2%) had gastric polyps (GPs).The prevalence of GPs was 3.04% and 3.32% in with and without dyspepsia subjects, respectively. There was no observed statistically significant relationship between GPs and dyspepsia (<em>P</em>=0.709). Hyperplastic polyps(HPs)were the most common pathologic form in patients with and without dyspepsia in 53.5% and 34.9% of patients, respectively. The most common location was the gastric antrum polyps (76.7%) and the common size of the polyps was between 5-10 mm in (80.6%) patients.</pre> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In the present study, there was no statistically significant difference within the pathologic findings of gastric polyp in terms of dyspepsia.Hyperplastic polyps(HPs) are the most common type of pathologic stomach polyps and it is maybe high due to the highfrequency of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection in our country.</p> Saeed Abdi Elham Moradi Zhaleh Mohsenifar Copyright (c) 2020 School of Medicine Students' Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-05 2020-09-05 2 3 7 13 10.22037/smsj.v2i3.30888 Comparison of the effect of oral diclofenac potassium (Cataflam) with diclofenac sodium suppository on postoperative cesarean section pain; a randomized clinical trial https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/smsj/article/view/30742 <p><strong>Background and aims:</strong> Postoperative pain after cesarean section is one of the important issues in gynecology. Opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are two of the drugs that are used for cesarean pain management. Considering the adverse effects of opioids in the mother and the baby, NSAIDs are preferred in the post-cesarean pain management. This study was designed to compare the effect of oral diclofenac potassium (Cataflam) with diclofenac sodium suppository on postoperative cesarean pain.<br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients who underwent cesarean section in Taleghani Hospital during 2019. Patients were randomly divided into two groups based on flipping coin. The first group received 100 mg of oral diclofenac potassium every 6 hours and the second group received 100 mg of diclofenac sodium suppository every 6 hours. The pain was assessed 30 minutes, 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours after the intervention using visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after analgesics.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Eighty-four patients were included in the final analysis. The mean of VAS during the intervention in the diclofenac sodium suppository group and in the Cataflam group was 3.42 ± 2.1 and 1.93 ± 2.4 respectively (P value = 0.011). Twenty-eight among 46 patients who received opioids due to severe pain (66.7%) were in the diclofenac suppository group and 18 of them (42.9%) were in the Cataflam group (P value = 0.021).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Diclofenac potassium tablets and diclofenac sodium suppository can reduce the post cesarean pain. The efficacy of diclofenac potassium tablets (Cataflam) is significantly higher than the diclofenac suppository; however, the complication rate was not significantly different.</p> Soodabeh Darvish Fariba Shirdel Mohammad Amin Shahrbaf Copyright (c) 2020 School of Medicine Students' Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-04 2020-10-04 2 3 14 17 10.22037/smsj.v2i3.30742 Cost Effectiveness of Rivaroxaban versus Warfarin to Prevent Stroke in Iranian AF Patients https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/smsj/article/view/31619 <p><strong>Background and objectives:</strong> Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in adults which need anti-coagulant to prevent stroke. Due to high cost of Rivaroxaban compared to warfarin, it`s not prescribed as much as warfarin by physicians despite its superiority in intracranial hemorrhage. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxabane versus warfarin in preventing stroke in AF patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study is a cost-utility analysis with cost-effectiveness assessed by the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Two strategies were used to obtain the costs; the first was from available resources and the next was to collect data using a questionnaire. Utility values for obtaining ∆QALYs were sourced from published data. Finally the cost-effectiveness of Warfarin versus Rivaroxaban was assessed using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which was calculated as the incremental cost per QALY (Quality-adjusted life year) gained.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total number of 98 patients who met the inclusion criteria were answered the questionnaire. Mean annually physician visits were 4 times in rivaroxaban and 14 times in warfarin group. The patients in Warfarin Group checked their INR (international normalised ratio) 15 times a year, while the patients in Rivaroxaban group did not check at all. The wasting time for each physician visit and doing Lab test was approximately 3 hour. Total cost of Rivaroxaban in both private (16699000IRR) and public services (15755000IRR) were less than Warfarin in both private and public services (24233700 &amp; 20345600 IRR). We analyzed the ΔQALYs of 7 different articles in which the mean ΔQALY was 0.21 (Variance: 0.0072). The Incremental cost per QALY per patient for warfarin in Private versus public services was 18514762 Rial /QALY, while the ICER between Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in both private and Public services was negative&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (-35879523.8 and -21860000 Rial/QALY). So the calculated threshold based on the per capita gross national product (GDP), which was 702576000 Rials (calculated at 42,000IRR/$), showed that Rivaroxaban is more cost-effective than Warfarin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> The results of present study demonstrated that use of Rivaroxaban versus Warfarin in both public and private services is a cost-effective choice. So, due to its economic and potential benefits, it is recommended to prescribe Rivaroxaban rather than warfarin.</p> Hesamaddin Gordan Mohammad Reza Beyranvand Mehdi Sheibani Mohamad Asadpur Piranfar Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi Copyright (c) 2020 School of Medicine Students' Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 2 3 18 24 10.22037/smsj.v2i3.31619 Viral Outbreaks of SARS-CoV1, SARS-CoV2, MERS-CoV, Influenza H1N1, and Ebola in 21st Century; A Comparative Review of the Pathogenesis and Clinical Characteristics https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/smsj/article/view/30455 <p> </p><p>Throughout the past twenty years, humankind had its fair share of challenges with viral epidemics. In late December 2019, a zoonotic member of the coronaviruses was responsible for the COVID-19 outbreak of viral pneumonia in Wuhan, China. As a worldwide crisis, meanwhile, conclusive prevention or therapy has yet to be discovered, the death toll of COVID-19 has exceeded 278000 by May 11<sup>th</sup>, 2020. Alike other members of Coronavirus family such as MERS and SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 provokes influenza-like syndrome which might further progress to the severe state of acute respiratory disease in some patients. Comparably, in 2009 the H1N1 influenza outbreak affected countless people by manifestations of respiratory system involvement. Additionally, Ebolavirus, as a member of the Filoviridae family, had also made a global catastrophe by causing hemorrhagic diseases in the past twenty years. The unknown intrinsic nature of SARS-CoV-2, as a great missing piece of this pandemic puzzle, has had physicians to empirically test the possibly efficacious agents of the former viral epidemics on the COVID-19 cases. Here, the current knowledge in SARS-CoV-2 clinical features, transmissibility, and pathogenicity are all summed up as against the other emerging viruses in the last two decades, and the data crucially required for a better management of the illness has been spotlighted.</p> Fateme Sadat Rahimi Siamak Afaghi Farzad Esmaeili Tarki Kian Goudarzi Nasser Malekpour Alamdari Copyright (c) 2020 School of Medicine Students' Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-11 2020-07-11 2 3 1 8 10.22037/smsj.v2i3.30455 It's time to revise the role of positive D- penicillamine challenge test in diagnosis of Wilson disease https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/smsj/article/view/29977 <pre>Hepatic involvement in Wilson disease consists of isolated elevated liver enzyme, asymptomatic hepatomegaly, cirrhosis and acute liver failure. Here we report three patients with unexplained elevated liver enzyme. By considering the level of urinary excretion of copper after penicillamine challenge test we had some problems in the process of diagnosis. Therefore we think of cautiously applying the diagnostic cut-off in mentioned challenge test.</pre> fereshteh karbasian Amirhossein Hosseini Naghi Dara Sarah Javdani Yekta Negar Imanzadeh Copyright (c) 2020 School of Medicine Students' Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-03 2020-10-03 2 3 27 29 10.22037/smsj.v2i3.29977