Novelty in Biomedicine <p><strong>"Novelty in Biomedicine (NBM)"</strong> is a quarterly publication of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.</a></p> <p><strong>eISSN 2345-3907</strong></p> <p><strong>pISSN 2345-3346</strong></p> en-US Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher. (Novelty in Biomedicine Journal) (Dr. Mehdi Goudarzi) Fri, 02 Dec 2022 19:39:45 +0000 OJS 60 Comparison between Management and Pharmacotherapy of COVID-19 in Iran and Switzerland <p><strong>Background</strong>: On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 as a public health<br>emergency. In the present study, we compared the preventative and therapeutic strategies and the success rates of Iran and Switzerland during the COVID-19 outbreak.<br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study was conducted using electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and<br>Web of Science. In addition, the official documents of developed countries and WHO from 1st February until 15th May 2020 were studied. Relevant documents were reviewed in detail, and vital data were extracted.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Both countries have restriction policies to reduce the infection rate in the prevention setting. These<br>policies, such as the recommendation to all citizens to stay home unless necessary, army participation, and<br>non-face-to-face counseling, were surveyed by similar techniques in both countries. Some policies were<br>implemented in both countries with different protocols. These policies, including social distancing practices,<br>smart distancing methods, business activities, border closures, border controls, and restrictions, travel<br>restrictions, testing and screening for infection and fever, and decreased working hours, were performed in<br>both countries. In the treatment setting, the therapeutic strategy used in Iran consisted of hydroxychloroquine<br>or chloroquine phosphate and anti-viral drugs. Switzerland followed the guidelines of the European countries.<br>The infection rate, recovery rate, and death rate were 0.139%, 78.73%, and 5.91% in Iran, while these rates<br>were 0.352%, 88.81%, and 6.15% in Switzerland, respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Due to the lack of special treatment for the disease, prevention must be considered the most<br>important factor in policymaking. Importantly, observing social distance is the most effective method among<br>the preventative strategies. The capacity of the health care systems to provide optimal services and facilities is<br>an important factor for patients recovery.</p> Payam Peymani, Somaye Bazdar, Leila Zarei, Mehdi Hoorang, Nazafarin Hatami-Mazinani, Kamran B Lankarani, Ali Reza Salili, Fatemeh Dehghani, Farshad Bargrizaneh, Sara Moghaddam, Maryam Matouri, Shima Jafari, Seyyed Amirreza Saghi, Hamed Delam, Motahareh Mahi-Birjand Copyright (c) 2022 Novelty in Biomedicine Fri, 02 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of educational interventions on the prevention of emerging diseases: A systematic review <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Background</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Seasonal influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could<br>cause considerable morbidity and mortality. The present study investigates the effectiveness of educational<br>interventions to prevent these diseases.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">We searched PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials<br>(CENTRAL) for relevant clinical studies up to March 25, 2022. The following terms were used: “influenza”,<br>“flu”, “respiratory infection”, “prevent”, "severe acute respiratory syndrome", COVID-19 “intervention”,<br>“education”, “school-based”, and “inform”.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Out of 1296 studies retrieved from databases, 13 types of clinical trials met the inclusion criteria and<br>were included in the study. E-learning and the educational module were the most common interventions for<br>influenza and COVID-19, respectively. The measured outcomes were health promotion strategies and<br>preventive behaviors among participants. All except one article showed a significant association between<br>educational interventions and outcomes.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The included studies in the current systematic review indicated the efficacy of health promotion<br>educational interventions in improving knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding COVID-19 and<br>Influenza.</span> </p> Soleiman Ahmady, Amin Habibi, Nilofar Massoudi Copyright (c) 2022 Novelty in Biomedicine Fri, 02 Dec 2022 19:39:00 +0000 A preliminary case series comparison of chest computerized tomography scan and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for COVID-19 contact tracing in developing countries with limited resources <p><strong>Background</strong>: Imaging and PCR each have a role in detecting and implementing precautionary measures in<br>isolating individuals with a history of close contact, which helps limit the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to<br>developing countries' difficulties, PCR is limited in Iran. This study seeks to determine the feasibility of early<br>low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) scans substitution with PCR.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Asymptomatic participants with a history of close contact with a confirmed case of<br>COVID-19 were enrolled and followed for one week, receiving 2 PCR tests within one week. Initially, a chest<br>CT scan was performed. The second CT scan was performed within one week on two participants. Participants<br>with an initially negative CT scan and participants with a first CT scan compatible with COVID-19 who became<br>symptomatic.<br><strong>Results</strong>: All Participants had an RT-PCR and at least one CT scan. Positive RT-PCR results were reported in<br>6 and 9 participants initially and within one week, respectively. Chest CT scans favoring COVID-19 infection<br>were initially reported in 4 and 6 participants within one week, respectively. Seventeen participants showed<br>neither symptoms nor positive RT-PCR or chested CT scans favoring COVID-19. Thirteen participants either<br>had positive RT-PCR, a COVID-19 chest CT scan or became symptomatic.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Rapid detection of COVID-19 and subsequent quarantining is crucial in the global fight against<br>this pandemic. Our results showed lower sensitivity for chest CT scans compared to COVID-19 PCR,<br>suggesting that chest CT scans are unsuitable for COVID-19 PCR tests.</p> Hooman Bahrami-Motlagh, Amir Mohammad Papan, Zahra Sahraei, Babak Salevatipour, Maryam Haghighimorad, Alireza Karami, Mana Zaman, Rastin Radfar, Minoosh Shabani Copyright (c) 2022 Novelty in Biomedicine Fri, 02 Dec 2022 19:28:40 +0000 A Randomized Controlled Trial: Colistin Alone or Colistin and Meropenem: Which Is More Effective for the Management of Urinary Tract Infections? <p><span class="fontstyle0">Background: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Colistin is a common antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by gramnegative bacteria. In recent years, due to the increasing resistance, consumption of colistin alone could lead to<br>treatment failures. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of colistin alone with colistin and meropenem<br>to treat patients with urinary tract infections.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Materials and Methods: </span><span class="fontstyle2">In this randomized, open-label, parallel groups controlled trial, hospitalized patients<br>with urinary tract infections were included. Patients were randomly allocated to the control group (n=35) that<br>received colistin (1 mIU every 12 hours) and the intervention group (n=35) that received colistin (1 mIU every<br>12 hours) with meropenem (1gr every 8 hours). An infectious disease specialist evaluated the therapeutic<br>responses 48-72 hours after admission. Cessation of fever, improvement of symptoms and signs, and negative<br>urine culture within 48 hours were considered successful therapeutic responses.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Results: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The mean length of hospitalization was longer in the control group (4.74±0.78 days) compared with<br>the intervention group (4.26±0.56 days) (P=0.004). The prevalence of fever cessation had no significant<br>difference between the two groups at any time (P&gt;0.05). Also, there was no significant difference between<br>the two groups at any time, considering vital signs, irritative urinary symptoms, nausea and vomiting, and<br>flank pain (P&gt;0.05).<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The administration of colistin and meropenem to treat UTIs was associated with a shorter<br>length of hospital stay. However, regarding response to treatment, it did not matter if they were treated with<br>colistin alone or with combination therapy (colistin and meropenem)</span> </p> Davood Yadegarynia, Shabnam Tehrani, Amirreza Keyvanfar, Latif Gachkar, Behnaz Najafi Copyright (c) 2022 Novelty in Biomedicine Fri, 02 Dec 2022 19:29:57 +0000 SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM Analysis in Patients Who Attended a University Hospital During the COVID-19 Epidemic in Iran <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Background</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The world is facing a new coronavirus that causes a respiratory infection called COVID-19.<br>Therefore, there is an increasing request for antibody tests in recovered individuals since they want to evaluate<br>their immunity against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">In our study, we had 1000 blood samples from patients admitted to the Ghiassi Hospital,<br>Tehran, Iran, or were asked to perform serological SARS-COV-2 IgM and IgG tests by their physicians were<br>collected. The antibody levels were assessed via the ELISA assay method using S and N antigens during various<br>waves of the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The highest IgG level (2.77) compared to the average (with 95% confidence) is observed in patients<br>infected in the third wave, which is confirmed by the ANOVA test. The mean IgM concentration in the second<br>wave was equal to 0.77 and more than the IgM level in the third wave and the beginning of the fourth wave,<br>which was confirmed by the ANOVA test.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Detection of SARS-COV-2 IgG, IgM has significant potential for evaluating the severity and<br>prognosis of COVID-19. In addition, all seroepidemiology data in each community can help Health<br>Commissions for controlling this pandemic. These data also can be used for epidemiological modeling and<br>assessing the prevalence of COVID-19 immunity in society.</span></p> Fariba Fayaz , Foad Rommasi, Leila Atefmehr , Mohammad Javad Nasiri Copyright (c) 2022 Novelty in Biomedicine Fri, 02 Dec 2022 19:33:33 +0000 Comparative evaluation of intra-cuff ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine on emergence reactions after general anesthesia <p style="font-weight: 400;"><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Background</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Emergence reactions are common after general anesthesia with tracheal intubation and can be<br>associated with severe hemodynamic consequences. Inflating the cuff with local anesthetic instead of air has been reported to prevent these problems. However, no definitive results have been obtained for the effectiveness of this method. This study tried to come to a more reasonable conclusion by conducting more studies, and we used a variety of local anesthetics.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">This study was performed on 350 patients over 18 years undergoing general anesthesia using an endotracheal tube. Patients were divided into five groups based on endotracheal tube cuff inflation with lidocaine, ropivacaine, bupivacaine, isotonic saline, and air. After removing the endotracheal tube, patients were evaluated for cough, sore throat, and hoarseness.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Cough, sore throat, and hoarseness were observed in 43.7%, 27.4%, and 4.6% of cases, respectively.<br>At all measured times, all reactions in all local anesthetic groups were weaker than in the air and saline groups.<br>The difference between the local anesthetic groups was not significant.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Using local anesthetics to inflate the endotracheal cuff reduces the incidence of emergence<br>reactions from general anesthesia.</span> </p> Ardeshir Tajbakhsh, Dariush Abtahi, Naeimeh Gholizadeh Copyright (c) 2022 Novelty in Biomedicine Fri, 02 Dec 2022 19:34:45 +0000 Apoptosis Induction by Lactobacillus casei Acidic Proteins in the Colorectal Cancer Cell Line <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Background</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third in cancer prevalence. </span><span class="fontstyle3">Lactobacillus casei</span><span class="fontstyle2">, a probiotic<br>bacterium, can optimize the microbiota population of the gastrointestinal tract and prevent the growth of harmful bacteria that induce carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect of </span><span class="fontstyle3">L. casei </span><span class="fontstyle2">acidic proteins on apoptosis in the SW480 cell line to identify a drug protein for treating CRC.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">We assayed the effect of the isolated acid-resistant proteins of the Chaperonin<br>bacterium, a metal-dependent Hydrolase, and Lysozyme on the SW480 colorectal cancer cell line apoptosis<br>pathway gene expression with a Real-Time RT-PCR.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">All three proteins induced apoptosis in the cells treated separately with each of the proteins. The<br>results showed that the up-regulation of BAX and P53 gene expression and the apoptosis pathway were<br>significantly induced. Also, BCL2 expression was down-regulated, and significant anti-apoptotic was observed<br>at p&lt;0.0001. Moreover, the cells treated with these three proteins down-regulated the expression of MAP2K1<br>and provoked the opposite apoptosis pathway.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Our results found that these proteins would be a good choice for potential CRC treatment.</span></p> Mahsa Mirzarazi, Mojgan Bandehpour Copyright (c) 2022 Novelty in Biomedicine Fri, 02 Dec 2022 19:36:00 +0000 Effects of Henna-Violet Based Topical Preparation in Preventing and Reducing the Severity of Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Background</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Radiation-induced dermatitis (RID) is a common side effect of radiotherapy. The present work<br>attempts to examine the effect of using henna- violet based topical preparation to prevent and decrease the<br>severity of RID in patients with breast cancer.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The study was carried out as a prospective, double-blind clinical study on 43 breast<br>cancer patients aged 18-75 years. The subjects had undergone breast-conserving surgery, and radiotherapy was scheduled for them. The participants were categorized randomly into two groups; patients who received the henna- violet based topical preparation and patients who received a placebo twice a day for six weeks. The level of the RID score was measured every week based on the toxicity criteria of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG).<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The henna- violet based topical preparation decreased the severity of RID and delayed the<br>development of grade 2 RID for two weeks. In addition, the initiation of grade 3 RID was deferred for one<br>week. There was a significant decrease in grade 2 RID (20% vs. 56.52%) as well as grade 3 RID (10% vs.<br>26.09%) in the patients who received the henna- violet based topical preparation at the end of the 6</span><span class="fontstyle2">th </span><span class="fontstyle2">week<br>(P=0.004).<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">This cream, which contained henna and violet, had no severe adverse effects, could prevent RID<br>and decreased the grade of dermatitis in breast cancer patients compared to the placebo.</span></p> Shaghayegh Kamian , Ghazaleh Heydarirad, Mozhgan MehrArdestani, Mansour Lesan Copyright (c) 2022 Novelty in Biomedicine Fri, 02 Dec 2022 19:37:39 +0000