Original Article / Research Article


The Father's Role in Parenting: a Comparison of Different Cultures and Psychological Perspectives

‪ Gholam Ali Afrooz‬, Halimeh Asgharpour, Farah Lotfi Kashani

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2022), , Page e1
https://doi.org/10.22037/mhj.v6i1.36795

Background: Despite the increasing attention to the role of the father and its importance in child development, little research has been done in this area compared to the mother's role. Methods: In this article, the father's role in child development was systematically reviewed from the perspective of different theoretical approaches as well as different cultures. Results: The findings showed that the role of men as fathers is changing and evolving from a mere breadwinner to a supporter. Most new generation fathers seek to participate in their children's lives and are more caregiving and emotionally responsive than the previous generation. Fathers have a unique role in raising children, which is different from the mothers’ role. The role of the father varies under the influence of culture and social structure. In Asia economic problems have changed the clear definition of the role of father. In the Middle East, Islamic beliefs determine the role of the father as the head of the family. In Europe, the role of the father as a participant and responsible person is improving. The modernization of society in Africa has complicated gaining a coherent and clear image of the father’s role for children. In North American countries, parents play an almost equal role in raising children. Expectations from fathers are vague in South America, but these expectations seem to be changing more rapidly. Conclusion: Studies confirm the important role of fathers in parenting from different psychological approaches and the change in men's definition of fatherhood. However, the father's roles are different in different cultural and social contexts.

Introduction: Social distance is important for reducing the spread of the new COVID-19 pandemic, especially in public places. In addition, urban stores are one of the crowded places where observing social distance is considered necessary. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the social distance between customers in urban stores during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic using a simulation method. Materials and methods: Research data were collected from the closed-circuit television footage of a store from a hypermarket in Iran, and then customers’ social distance was analyzed through their movement behaviors by two modes of 1 and 2-meter distance using software similar to the Pathfinder simulator. Further parts of the urban store required corrections considering the first scenario and the two-meter distance between people compared to the second scenario and the one-meter distance between them. Results: Based on simulation results, dense areas were identified in different sections of the hypermarket, namely, places where the shelves distance was 1 meter to 2 meters. More precisely, this research provided a method for evaluating different parts of the store in terms of population density regarding maintaining social distance. Conclusion: several suggestions were presented to stores for maintaining social distance based on research findings.

Background: We aimed to investigate the association between prostate specific antigen (PSA) density and Gleason score of the positive surgical (PSM) margin after radical prostatectomy with biochemical recurrence in patients with prostate cancer.  Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with prostate cancer referred to Hasheminejad Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2009-2019, who underwent radical prostatectomy were enrolled through the convenience sampling method. The follow-up period was determined as at least one year after radical prostatectomy to determine biochemical recurrence. Prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) and the Gleason score of surgical specimen and positive surgical margins (PSM) were evaluated and their association with biochemical recurrences was investigated. Results: One hundred and three patients were assessed. The overall biochemical recurrence rate was 48.5% with a mean follow-up of 24 months (12-42 months) and an average time to biochemical recurrence of 18 months (16-20 months). BCR-free (Biochemical recurrence-free) survival rates of patients divided based on the PSAD cut-off point (0.205 ng/ml/cc) were significantly different using the log-rank test (P= 0.008) (85.7%, 57.1%, and 14.3% for values ≤ 0.205 ng/ml/c versus 55.8%, 20.9%, and 0% for values ˃ 0.205 ng/ml/cc, respectively for 1-, 2- and 3-year survival). Moreover, Cox regression showed that the Gleason score of PSM, the Gleason score of the surgical specimen, and the PSAD predicted biochemical recurrence more, respectively. Conclusion: PSAD and PSM Gleason scores were strong predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and their use along with other common indicators including tumor grade and stage and PSA level can increase the accuracy of risk assessment in patients with prostate cancer.

Prevalence of Atypical Infections in Male Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain

Elizabeth Nagoda, Timothy Demus, Dhaval Jivanji, Giovanni Cragnotti, Anthony Bui, Alan Polackwich

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2022), , Page e6
https://doi.org/10.22037/mhj.v6i1.37739

Introduction:  Atypical infections are often considered as a potential etiology for men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). We aimed to describe the prevalence of atypical infections in this patient population to inform clinical management for male patients complaining of pelvic pain.  Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients at a single center from January 2016 to January 2019. We included patients with CP/CPPS Type III diagnosed with pelvic or genital pain in the absence of bacterial infection. All patients underwent an atypical infection panel. The primary outcome measure was the presence of any atypical infection. Results: In total, 345 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 9/345 (2.6%) had an atypical infection (5 mycoplasma and 4 ureaplasma). The mean age of patients with positive atypical infections was 34 compared to the overall study population (44 years, P=0.01). Two patients with atypical infections were also followed for infertility. Urinalysis was available for 6 of the 9 patients with positive atypical infection: 50% (3 out of 6) were normal and 50% (3 out of 6) had >5 WBC/hpf. Symptoms resolved in 66% (2 out of 3) of the patients with positive atypical infection with available follow-up data. Conclusion: Atypical infectious agents were uncommon causes of CP/CPPS. Screening for atypical microbes such as chlamydia, ureaplasma, or mycoplasma may not be necessary for male patients complaining of pelvic or genital pain.

Prevalence and risk factors of urethral, penile, and scrotal cancers in Iranian men during 2004-2015: A national cancer registry-based study

Farzad Allameh, Afshin Moradi, Mohammad Javad Eslami, Mohammad Reza Hajian, Seyyed Ali Hojjati, Saba Faraji, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2022), , Page e7
https://doi.org/10.22037/mhj.v6i1.37861

Introduction: Urethral, penile, and scrotal cancers are rare and represent less than 1% of all malignancies. However, they are associated with a high mortality rate and have a significant effect on patients’ quality of life. Penile and urethral cancers comprise 0.6% of all urological cancers. Because of ethnic, geographical, and cultural diversity, risk factors and cancer patterns vary in different communities. We aimed to provide valid information on the prevalence, incidence, and epidemiology of urethral, penile, and scrotal cancers using the National Registry on Cancer of Iran. Methods: This retrospective study of 465 patients included all known cases of urethral, penile, and scrotal cancers from the Department of National Registry on Cancer at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran during 2004-2015. This study examined the demographic characteristics of patients and discussed the risk factors and possible causes of the above-mentioned cancers. Results: The mean ±SD age at the time of registration was 58.49±20.82 years. The highest and lowest proportions of cases belonged to Tehran/Alborz (14.2%) and Mazandaran (0.65%) provinces, Iran, respectively. Regarding the distribution of records according to a year of registration, these cancers were more prevalent in 2014, and less prevalent in 2004. Conclusion: Urethral, penile, and scrotal cancers were more common in Tehran and Alborz. There was a strong possibility that the prevalence of these cancers is linked to the industrial nature of Tehran and Alborz and the prevalence of human papillomavirus.

Introduction: Self-efficacy is a construct that can greatly influence sports development. Individuals with a high self-efficacy level are more likely to set tougher goals and work harder to achieve them. We aimed to investigate the relationship between sports aggression and sports mindfulness with sports self-efficacy in male athletes through the mediating role of family cohesion. Material and Methods: The statistical population of this descriptive-correlational study covered all male athletes who are members of the youth and adult male football teams in Masjed Soleyman (Iran) in 2021. The 258 athletes were selected using convenience sampling. The research tools included the Sports Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport, and the Family Cohesion Questionnaire. The proposed model was evaluated using path analysis and indirect correlations were tested with bootstrapping. Results: The results suggested that all direct paths to sport self-efficacy were significant except sports mindfulness (P<0.01), and indirect paths to sports self-efficacy became significant through family cohesion (P<0.01). Conclusion: The proposed model had a good fit, and was a major step toward recognizing the factors affecting sports self-efficacy in male athletes, and can help in designing programs to reduce their experienced tension and improve their sports self-efficacy.

Letter to the editor


Premature Ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. But its diagnosis is still a challenge for clinicians (1). People are either reluctant to approach doctors with their sexual problems or those who approach health care providers are reluctant to ask for proper history (2). Although being the most common sexual dysfunction, there is no clear-cut case definition or criteria for the clinical diagnosis which can be used in day-to-day practice.

Systematic Review


Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders in Iranian Men in the Last 10 Years: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Keshvar Samadaee Gelehkolaee, Soraya Moamer, Soroush Mohammadi Kalhori, Fereshteh Aliakbari, Ehsan Shojaeefar, Sedigheh Pashapour, Mehraneh Darab, Mostafa Hamdieh, Jalil Hosseini

Men's Health Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2022), , Page e4
https://doi.org/10.22037/mhj.v6i1.38176

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an estimate of the prevalence of anxiety disorders during 2010-2020 among Iranian men.  Methods: We searched international and national databases including PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library, SID, and Magiran with related keywords. The selected studies were also qualitatively evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) checklist. I2 test was used to measure the heterogeneity of the studies and a random strategy for meta-analysis was considered using the result. Results: We reviewed 782 articles identified through our search. Then, 51 articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria and, data were extracted from 24 articles. After carefully reviewing these articles, 24 articles were ultimately selected for meta-analysis. The overall estimated prevalence of anxiety among men was 12% (95% CI: 0.11, 0.13). The highest prevalence of anxiety was 50% (95%CI: 0.38-0.62) in Tehran and the lowest prevalence of anxiety was 0.014% (95%CI:0.003-0.025) in Shiraz. Conclusions: Anxiety disorders are common and the substantive identified here explain much of the prevalence of mental disorders. These results showed the potential in men to suffer from anxiety disorders.

Review Article


Since 31 December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in a state of hyperinflammation syndrome and multiorgan failure. In areas with pandemic outbreaks, despite several emerging vaccines, supportive treatments to mitigate fatality rates were required. Growing evidence suggests that several small RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNA (siRNA) could be candidates for the treatment of COVID-19 by inhibiting the expression of crucial virus genes. small RNAs by binding to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) or 5′-UTR of viral RNA play an important role in COVID-19-host interplay and viral replication. In this review, the authors sought to specify the efficacy and safety of miRNAs and siRNA expressions of patients with COVID-19, which has an axial role in the pathogenesis of human diseases.