Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences <p>The <strong><span style="color: #c21807;">Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences ( JLMS) </span></strong>is a scientific <strong><span style="color: #c21807;">Continuously</span></strong><strong>*</strong> publication of the <strong><a href="">Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center</a>,&nbsp;</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences</strong>.</a> This journal accepts original papers, review articles, case reports, brief reports, case series, photo essays, letters to the editor, and commentaries in the field of<strong> Laser</strong> or <strong>Light</strong> in any field of medicine such as the following medical specialties: Dermatology, General and Vascular Surgery, Oncology, Cardiology, Dentistry, Urology, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Gynecology &amp; Obstetrics, Internal Medicine, Orthopedics, Neurosurgery, Radiology, Pain Medicine (Algology). Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences has received a scientific and research score from the National Medical Publication Committee.</p> <p><strong>*JLMS</strong> was the quarterly publication from 2010 to 2020. We changed the type of publication to <strong><span style="color: #c21807;">Continuously</span></strong>&nbsp;from 2021 and publish a volume continuously (one volume) each year. Also, the print publication type publishes at the end of each year.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences en-US Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2008-9783 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <p><strong>Copyright Rules</strong></p> <p>Upon publication, each author agrees that the “Laser application in Medical Sciences Research Center” is the copyright owner of the material published in “Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences”. The users are free to copy, distribute, and display the work; to make any reasonable noncommercial use of the work, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. Authors may use their material in presentations and subsequent publications they write or edit themselves, provided that “Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences” is notified in writing and is acknowledged as the original publication.</p> <p><strong>Post-publication discussions and corrections:</strong></p> <p>The journal reserves the right to publish corrections to the former version of the manuscript, revise it, or retract the article even after publication. Post-publication discussion may be executed through Letter to Editor.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Retraction Policy</p> <p>Our journal takes measures in accordance to <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><u>COPE flowcharts</u></strong></a> in case of encountering an article that needs to be retracted.&nbsp;</p> Effects of Two Protocols of Low-Level Laser Therapy on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Sandblasted Titanium Discs: An In Vitro Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Stem cell activities have different effects on tissue response and its outcomes. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can be considered a trigger to modify stem cell activities. The objective of the present experimental investigation was to study the effects of two protocols of LLLT on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) cultured on sandblasted titanium discs.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Cells obtained from human dental pulp were seeded/cultured on titanium discs and were set in 2 main groups: (i) Radiated cells using the gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser at a continuous wavelength of 808 nm at 3 J/cm2 for 12 sec or 5 J/cm2 for 20 seconds, and (ii) Nonirradiated cells serving as control groups. The impact of LLLTs on hDPSC proliferation and viability<br>was investigated using the MTT assay after 24, 72, and 96 hours. The alkaline phosphatase activity was studied with p-nitrophenylphosphate after 14 and 28 days. The ability of hDPSCs to express osteocalcin was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction after 28 days, while their attachment was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 14 and 28 days.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Our study showed that LLLTs caused maximum cell proliferation in 96 hours (P&lt;0.001) with 3 J/cm2 resulting in a higher proliferation rate. The highest activity of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression was observed in the laser radiation groups after 28 days.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The outcomes of the current study showed that cultured hDPSCs on sandblasted titanium discs had a tendency towards increased cellular activity in response to LLLTs. Thus, LLLTs could regulate the activities of hDPSCs on bone repair surrounding the sandblasted titanium discs.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.01</a></p> Reza Amid Mahdi Kadkhodazadeh Maedeh Gilvari Sarshari Ardavan Parhizkar Massoud Mojahedi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-01-10 2022-01-10 13 e1 e1 Efficacy of the Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Application Versus the Conventional Method in Periodontal Flap Surgery: A Split-Mouth Randomized Control Trial <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The Er,Cr: YSGG laser has a suitable wavelength for the ablation of both hard and soft tissues of the periodontium and can be considered a potential tool in periodontal surgeries. The current study aimed at evaluating the application of this laser versus conventional instruments in periodontal pocket reduction flap surgery.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Eight patients requiring periodontal surgery were included. Using a split-mouth study design, two posterior sextants of a dental arch were randomly allocated into either a test group, open flap debridement periodontal surgery using the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, or a control group using the conventional method. Laser parameter settings of a 2780 nm wavelength, H mode (60 µs pulse duration), 25-50 Hz, 2-3.5 W output powers, and Air-20%, Water-60-80% were applied and adjusted individually for each step of the flap surgery procedure. Baseline, 1-3 month measurements of plaque index, Gingival Index, gingival recession, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded for comparisons. Data were analyzed by a linear model for correlated data using the generalized estimating equations method and the least significant difference.<br><strong>Results:</strong> In both treatment groups, reductions in PI and GI were observed in the 3-month follow-up period. These indices were significantly lower in the laser-treated sides compared to the conventional group (P&lt;0.05). The Mean PD and CAL were lower at 1 month and 3 months compared to the baseline in both groups (P&lt;0.05). However, these parameters were not statistically different in the treatment groups during these follow-up timelines. An increase in GR was observed from the baseline to 1 month and 3 months with less recession in the laser-treated sides (P=0.016).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results of the present study, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted periodontal flap surgery resulted in similar treatment outcomes to the conventional method and may be considered a safe and effective treatment modality</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.04.</a></p> Parviz Torkzaban Iman Barati Javad Faradmal Somayeh Ansari-moghadam Leila Gholami Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 13 e4 e4 Photobiomodulation and Antimicrobial Photodynamic Influence of a 650 nm Wavelength on Staphylocoagulase and Viability of Staphylococcus aurous <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Staphylococcus aureus is one of the critical pathological bacteria. This bacterium had developed a variety of genetic mutations that made it resistant to drugs and more harmful to humans. In addition, all attempts to design a specific vaccine against S. aureus have failed. Therefore, this experiment was designed as a trial for vaccine production, by using a photodynamic treatment (PDT) through partial biological inhibition. This study also aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of PDT on the total bacterial account (viability) simultaneously with SC assay.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A 650nm wavelength diode laser was used with 100 mW output power and 2 minutes of exposure time. Dye dilutions were 50, 100, 150 and 200 μg/mL. The viability of bacteria after and before laser treatment was calculated using single plate-serial dilution spotting methods. The activity of SC was detected by using human plasma for 4 hours incubation of crude-substrate interaction.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed a significant decrease in enzyme activity and colony-forming units (CFU) after irradiating bacterial suspension with 150 g/mL MB, as well as a decline in CFU. However, irradiation with a laser alone showed a significant increase in SC activity and CFU for the same exposure time.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Besides reducing the production of SC activity, PDT significantly inhibited the viability of S. aureus. The application of MB photosensitizer at a concentration of 150 g/mL in combination with a laser wavelength of 650 nm resulted in a complete decrease in the SC activity value as well as the viability of bacteria.</p> <p><strong> Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.05</a></p> Noor Abduljabar Jadah Imad Abdulabbass Shamkhi Jinan Abdulabbass Shamkhi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-05 2022-02-05 13 e5 e5 Comparison of the Effectiveness of CO2 and Diode Lasers for Gingival Melanin Depigmentation: A Randomized Clinical Trial <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Gingival hyperpigmentation is an esthetic concern for some individuals. This study compared the effectiveness of CO2 and diode lasers for gingival depigmentation.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This randomized, split-mouth, clinical trial consisted of 12 patients with the chief complaint of hyperpigmented gingival areas. The upper right and left anterior segments and the mandibular anterior&nbsp; segment were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups. The segments in group 1 underwent gingival depigmentation with a diode laser (810 nm) at 6 W and pulsed mode, whereas group 2 was ablated with a diode laser at 3 W and continuous mode. The removal of gingival pigments in group 3 was contemplated with a CO2<br>laser (10600 nm, 3 W, continuous mode). The operation chair time, bleeding during the procedure and post-operative pain were recorded. The gingival color and esthetic appearance were measured before the operation and at 1 week and 6 months later.<br><strong>Results:</strong> There was no significant difference in the bleeding scores, pain level, and color alteration values between the groups (P&gt;0.05). The operation chair time was significantly shorter when the diode laser was applied at pulsed mode (P&lt;0.05). The segments treated with the diode laser (pulsed or continuous mode) showed a higher esthetic appearance at the 6-month follow-up compared to those ablated with the CO2<br>laser (P&lt;0.05).<br><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Higher esthetic appearance is expected when using the diode laser for gingival depigmentation compared to the CO2 laser. The application of the diode laser at pulsed mode could be recommended for gingival depigmentation, as it produced pleasing esthetic outcomes at reduced chair time.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.8</a></p> Amir Moeintaghavi Farzaneh Ahrari Amir Fallahrastegar Asma Salehnia Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-22 2022-02-22 13 e8 e8 Effects of Radiotherapy in Combination With Irinotecan and 17-AAG on Bcl-2 and Caspase 3 Gene Expression in Colorectal Cancer Cells <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In this study, the cytotoxic and anti-cancer effects of Irinotecan as a conventional chemotherapeutic agent compared to 17-(allyl amino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) as possible radiosensitizers in the HCT-116 cell line were investigated.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> HCT-116 cells were treated with various concentrations of irinotecan and 17-AAG and also irradiated with a 2-Gy of X-ray radiation. Then, the cell viability was examined by a watersoluble tetrazolium-1 assay after 24 hours. For single therapies and double and triple combination cases, IC50, 0.5×IC50 and 0.25×IC50 concentrations of each drug were selected respectively for a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and other tests. In treated and untreated cells, the caspase 3 and Bcl-2 gene expression ratios were evaluated by the real-time PCR method. Likewise, caspase 3 activity was detected with a colorimetric assay.<br><strong>Results:</strong> In all combined treatments, including 17-AAG- radiation, irinotecan - radiation, irinotecan -17-AAG, and irinotecan-17-AAG-radiation, decreased cell viability, and increased TUNEL positive cells were presented versus the control group (P&lt;0.05). There were increased TUNEL positive cells in the triple combination, in concentrations of 0.25×IC50 of each drug, in comparison with single and double agent treatments. Moreover, in the triple combination, the caspase 3 mRNA level and caspase 3 activity increased versus related single treatments. Likewise, in the irinotecan17-AAG-radiation combined treatment and the 17-AAG-radiation double treatment, the Bcl-2 gene expression level decreased in comparison with single therapies.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can be indicated that the combination of chemo-radiotherapy versus single treatments has significant anti-cancer effects.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.09.</a></p> Mahnaz Ebrahimpour Mahshid Mohammadian Bagher Pourheydar Zhino Moradi Zhaleh Behrouzkia Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 13 e9 e9 Different Protocols of Combined Application of Photobiomodulation In Vitro and In Vivo Plus AdiposeDerived Stem Cells Improve the Healing of Bones in Critical Size Defects in Rat Models <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Long bone segmental deficiencies are challenging complications to treat. Hereby, the effects of the scaffold derived from the human demineralized bone matrix (hDBMS) plus human adipose stem cells (hADSs) plus photobiomodulation (PBM) (in vitro and or in vivo) on the catabolic step of femoral bone repair in rats with critical size femoral defects (CDFDs) were evaluated with stereology and high stress load (HSL) assessment methods.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> hADSs were exposed to PBM in vitro; then, the mixed influences of hDBMS+hADS+PBM on CSFDs were evaluated. CSFDs were made on both femurs; then hDBMSs were engrafted into both CSFDs of all rats. There were 6 groups (G)s: G1 was the control; in G2 (hADS), hADSs only were engrafted into hDBMS of CSFD; in G3 (PBM) only PBM therapy for CSFD was provided; in G4 (hADS+PBM in vivo), seeded hADSs on hDBMS of CSFDs were radiated with a laser in vivo; in G5 (hADSs+PBM under in vitro condition), hADSs in a culture system were radiated with a laser, then transferred on hDBMS of CSFDs; and in G6 (hADS+PBM in conditions of in vivo and in vitro), laser-exposed hADSs were transplanted on hDBMS of CSFDs, and then CSFDs were exposed to a<br>laser in vivo.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Groups 4, 5, and 6 meaningfully improved HSLs of CSFD in comparison with groups 3, 1, and 2 (all, P=0.001). HSL of G5 was significantly more than G4 and G6 (both, P=0.000). Gs 6 and 4 significantly increased new bone volumes of CSFD compared to Gs 2 (all, P=0.000) and 1 (P=0.001 &amp; P=0.003 respectively). HSL of G 1 was significantly lower than G5 (P=0.026).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> HSLs of CSFD in rats that received treatments of hDBMS plus hADS plus PBM were significantly higher than treatments with hADS and PBM alone and in control groups.</p> <p><strong> DOI:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.10.</a></p> Armin Khosravipour Atarodalsadat Mostafavinia Abdollah Amini Rouhallah Gazor Fatemeh Zare Somaye Fallahnezhad Fatemehalsadat Rezaei Mehrdad Asgari Fatemeh Mohammadian Zhaleh Mohsenifar Sufan Chien Mohammad Bayat Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 13 e10 e10 Parameters Used With Diode Lasers (808-980 nm) in Dentin Hypersensitivity Management: A Systematic Review <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The present study aimed to describe parameters used with 808- to 980-nm wavelength diode lasers for managing dentin hypersensitivity and analyze their results.<br>Methods: The inclusion criteria were based on randomized controlled clinical trials using diode lasers at an 808-980 nm wavelength range in patients with dentine hypersensitivity with a minimum of 1-month follow-up. An electronic search for articles on Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane databases was performed. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane collaboration tool.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Our electronic search resulted in 130 papers, of which 11 articles met the inclusion criteria. A majority of the studies assessed dentine hypersensitivity using the Visual Analogue Scale, which ranged between 2.3 and 8.8 before treatment and significantly reduced to a mean value of 0.45-3.7 after diode laser application. The power settings ranged between 1.5 mW and 3 W with an emission mode of continuous wave, except for 2 authors who used chopped mode. The energy density varied from 2.5 to 128 J/cm2, and the exposure time was between 10 and 120 seconds. The authors applied a minimum of 1 to 4 treatment sessions with a 2-day to 1-week interval between them. Most of the studies mentioned the tooth surface as the treatment site but without describing the specific irradiation points.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite the heterogeneity of the analyzed variables, a statistically significant improvement in all laser groups as described. However, they cannot be compared homogenously.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.03.</a></p> Haitham Abdelkarim-Elafifi Isabel Parada Avendaño Josep Arnabat Domínguez Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 13 e3 e3 Does photobiomodulation therapy improve the postoperative outcomes of tonsillectomy? A systematic review and meta-analysis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Postoperative management of patients undergoing tonsillectomy is challenging. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has emerged as a new tool providing therapeutic benefits. However, the contribution of PBMT to the postoperative outcomes of tonsillectomy is still undefined. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the published literature addressing the effects of PBMT on post-tonsillectomy.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Searches in Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and grey literature were carried out for the identification of randomized controlled trials reported up to August/2021. The risk of bias with the Cochrane Collaboration tool and meta-analysis was performed. Outcomes were assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 1183 articles were retrieved, of which only two were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The wavelengths were 685 nm and 980 nm with energy density set at 4 J/cm². The mandibular angle and the surgical wound were the sites of laser irradiation. Individuals who had not undergone PBMT after tonsillectomy were more likely to report pain and odynophagia in the first 24 hours after surgery than individuals who had undergone PBMT after tonsillectomy (P&lt;0.001). Children who received PBMT after tonsillectomy were equally affected by pain and odynophagia in the first seven days after surgery compared to children who had not undergone PBMT after tonsillectomy (P&gt;0.05). However, both studies found a significant association of PBMT with reduced analgesic consumption.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although PBMT seems promising for the management of individuals undergoing tonsillectomy, a limited number of studies are available in the literature.</p> <p><strong> Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.07. </a></p> José Alcides Almeida de Arruda Gerhilde Callou Sampaio Ana Carolina Velasco Pondé de Sena Lauren Frenzel Schuch Jaziel Pereira Ribeiro Manoela Domingues Martins Tarcília Aparecida Silva Ricardo Alves Mesquita Lucas Guimarães Abreu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 13 e7 e7 Comparison of Bichectomy Techniques Through a Clinical Case and 6-Month Follow-up <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Bichectomy consists of the partial removal of the Bichat ball (BB) of its buccal extension and smoothing the facial contour. The objective of this study is to present, by means of a clinical case, bichectomy surgery with the use of a high-power diode laser and cold scalpel on different sides of the same patient, analyzing the trans-surgical phase and the pain and edema like consequence operative of each technique and 6-month follow-up.<br><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> A 20-year-old female patient reported the occurrence of involuntary trauma to the cheek mucosa and rounded facial appearance. After anamnesis and clinical examination, bichectomy was proposed. For comparison, on the right side, an incision was made using a laser, while on the left side, with a cold scalpel. To assess and measure the progression of treatment, photographs and facial measurements were repeated before the procedure, 7, 14, and 28 days after the procedure, and 2, 3, and 6 months after the procedure.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The high-power diode laser showed excellent applicability for bichectomy due to its hemostatic properties in the trans-surgical phase. In addition, it promoted greater patient comfort, with less edema and pain on the side of the face where it was used.</p> <p><strong> DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.02</a></p> Yasmin Rabelo Batalha de Sena Paulo Maria Santos Rabêlo-Júnior Leticia Machado Gonçalves Andrea Dias Neves Lago Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 13 e2 e2 Diode Laser Excision of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck’s Disease): A Case Report <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), also known as Heck’s disease, is a human papilloma virus-induced proliferation of epithelial cells, which causes asymptomatic lesions in the oral mucosa. Heck’s disease is more prevalent among children or in a family. Despite the self-limitation of lesions, they may progress or cause esthetical and functional discomforts. Hence, early diagnosis is necessary.<br><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> A middle-aged man with peripheral multiple soft, elevated, sessile, smooth, lobulated surface and nodular lesions in his right buccal mucosa was referred. The dimensions of the lesions varied from 5 to 25 mm. Through clinical and histopathological examinations, Heck’s disease was diagnosed. The diode laser (wavelengths of 980 nm), 1-W power using continuous waves) was applied serially (in 2 sessions with a 1-week interval) for surgically removing the lesions. The patient was followed up for 6 months with no lesion recurrence, and gradual healing was observed.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The laser is an effective treatment with no scar remaining after the procedure and brings satisfaction to patients.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.06.</a></p> Javad Sarabadani Nasim Chiniforush Yasaman Yazdandoust Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 13 e6 e6