Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences <p>The <strong><span style="color: #c21807;">Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences ( JLMS) </span></strong>is a scientific <strong><span style="color: #c21807;">Continuously</span></strong><strong>*</strong> publication of the <strong><a href="">Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center</a>,&nbsp;</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences</strong>.</a> This journal accepts original papers, review articles, case reports, brief reports, case series, photo essays, letters to the editor, and commentaries in the field of<strong> Laser</strong> or <strong>Light</strong> in any field of medicine such as the following medical specialties: Dermatology, General and Vascular Surgery, Oncology, Cardiology, Dentistry, Urology, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Gynecology &amp; Obstetrics, Internal Medicine, Orthopedics, Neurosurgery, Radiology, Pain Medicine (Algology). Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences has received a scientific and research score from the National Medical Publication Committee.</p> <p><strong>*JLMS</strong> was the quarterly publication from 2010 to 2020. We changed the type of publication to <strong><span style="color: #c21807;">Continuously</span></strong>&nbsp;from 2021 and publish a volume continuously (one volume) each year. Also, the print publication type publishes at the end of each year.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences en-US Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2008-9783 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <p><strong>Copyright Rules</strong></p> <p>Upon publication, each author agrees that the “Laser application in Medical Sciences Research Center” is the copyright owner of the material published in “Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences”. The users are free to copy, distribute, and display the work; to make any reasonable noncommercial use of the work, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. Authors may use their material in presentations and subsequent publications they write or edit themselves, provided that “Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences” is notified in writing and is acknowledged as the original publication.</p> <p><strong>Post-publication discussions and corrections:</strong></p> <p>The journal reserves the right to publish corrections to the former version of the manuscript, revise it, or retract the article even after publication. Post-publication discussion may be executed through Letter to Editor.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Retraction Policy</p> <p>Our journal takes measures in accordance to <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><u>COPE flowcharts</u></strong></a> in case of encountering an article that needs to be retracted.&nbsp;</p> Effects of Two Protocols of Low-Level Laser Therapy on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Sandblasted Titanium Discs: An In Vitro Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Stem cell activities have different effects on tissue response and its outcomes. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can be considered a trigger to modify stem cell activities. The objective of the present experimental investigation was to study the effects of two protocols of LLLT on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) cultured on sandblasted titanium discs.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Cells obtained from human dental pulp were seeded/cultured on titanium discs and were set in 2 main groups: (i) Radiated cells using the gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser at a continuous wavelength of 808 nm at 3 J/cm2 for 12 sec or 5 J/cm2 for 20 seconds, and (ii) Nonirradiated cells serving as control groups. The impact of LLLTs on hDPSC proliferation and viability<br>was investigated using the MTT assay after 24, 72, and 96 hours. The alkaline phosphatase activity was studied with p-nitrophenylphosphate after 14 and 28 days. The ability of hDPSCs to express osteocalcin was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction after 28 days, while their attachment was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 14 and 28 days.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Our study showed that LLLTs caused maximum cell proliferation in 96 hours (P&lt;0.001) with 3 J/cm2 resulting in a higher proliferation rate. The highest activity of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression was observed in the laser radiation groups after 28 days.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The outcomes of the current study showed that cultured hDPSCs on sandblasted titanium discs had a tendency towards increased cellular activity in response to LLLTs. Thus, LLLTs could regulate the activities of hDPSCs on bone repair surrounding the sandblasted titanium discs.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.01</a></p> Reza Amid Mahdi Kadkhodazadeh Maedeh Gilvari Sarshari Ardavan Parhizkar Massoud Mojahedi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-01-10 2022-01-10 13 e1 e1 Efficacy of the Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Application Versus the Conventional Method in Periodontal Flap Surgery: A Split-Mouth Randomized Control Trial <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The Er,Cr: YSGG laser has a suitable wavelength for the ablation of both hard and soft tissues of the periodontium and can be considered a potential tool in periodontal surgeries. The current study aimed at evaluating the application of this laser versus conventional instruments in periodontal pocket reduction flap surgery.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Eight patients requiring periodontal surgery were included. Using a split-mouth study design, two posterior sextants of a dental arch were randomly allocated into either a test group, open flap debridement periodontal surgery using the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, or a control group using the conventional method. Laser parameter settings of a 2780 nm wavelength, H mode (60 µs pulse duration), 25-50 Hz, 2-3.5 W output powers, and Air-20%, Water-60-80% were applied and adjusted individually for each step of the flap surgery procedure. Baseline, 1-3 month measurements of plaque index, Gingival Index, gingival recession, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded for comparisons. Data were analyzed by a linear model for correlated data using the generalized estimating equations method and the least significant difference.<br><strong>Results:</strong> In both treatment groups, reductions in PI and GI were observed in the 3-month follow-up period. These indices were significantly lower in the laser-treated sides compared to the conventional group (P&lt;0.05). The Mean PD and CAL were lower at 1 month and 3 months compared to the baseline in both groups (P&lt;0.05). However, these parameters were not statistically different in the treatment groups during these follow-up timelines. An increase in GR was observed from the baseline to 1 month and 3 months with less recession in the laser-treated sides (P=0.016).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results of the present study, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted periodontal flap surgery resulted in similar treatment outcomes to the conventional method and may be considered a safe and effective treatment modality</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.04.</a></p> Parviz Torkzaban Iman Barati Javad Faradmal Somayeh Ansari-moghadam Leila Gholami Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 13 e4 e4 Photobiomodulation and Antimicrobial Photodynamic Influence of a 650 nm Wavelength on Staphylocoagulase and Viability of Staphylococcus aurous <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Staphylococcus aureus is one of the critical pathological bacteria. This bacterium had developed a variety of genetic mutations that made it resistant to drugs and more harmful to humans. In addition, all attempts to design a specific vaccine against S. aureus have failed. Therefore, this experiment was designed as a trial for vaccine production, by using a photodynamic treatment (PDT) through partial biological inhibition. This study also aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of PDT on the total bacterial account (viability) simultaneously with SC assay.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A 650nm wavelength diode laser was used with 100 mW output power and 2 minutes of exposure time. Dye dilutions were 50, 100, 150 and 200 μg/mL. The viability of bacteria after and before laser treatment was calculated using single plate-serial dilution spotting methods. The activity of SC was detected by using human plasma for 4 hours incubation of crude-substrate interaction.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed a significant decrease in enzyme activity and colony-forming units (CFU) after irradiating bacterial suspension with 150 g/mL MB, as well as a decline in CFU. However, irradiation with a laser alone showed a significant increase in SC activity and CFU for the same exposure time.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Besides reducing the production of SC activity, PDT significantly inhibited the viability of S. aureus. The application of MB photosensitizer at a concentration of 150 g/mL in combination with a laser wavelength of 650 nm resulted in a complete decrease in the SC activity value as well as the viability of bacteria.</p> <p><strong> Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.05</a></p> Noor Abduljabar Jadah Imad Abdulabbass Shamkhi Jinan Abdulabbass Shamkhi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-05 2022-02-05 13 e5 e5 Comparison of the Effectiveness of CO2 and Diode Lasers for Gingival Melanin Depigmentation: A Randomized Clinical Trial <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Gingival hyperpigmentation is an esthetic concern for some individuals. This study compared the effectiveness of CO2 and diode lasers for gingival depigmentation.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This randomized, split-mouth, clinical trial consisted of 12 patients with the chief complaint of hyperpigmented gingival areas. The upper right and left anterior segments and the mandibular anterior&nbsp; segment were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups. The segments in group 1 underwent gingival depigmentation with a diode laser (810 nm) at 6 W and pulsed mode, whereas group 2 was ablated with a diode laser at 3 W and continuous mode. The removal of gingival pigments in group 3 was contemplated with a CO2<br>laser (10600 nm, 3 W, continuous mode). The operation chair time, bleeding during the procedure and post-operative pain were recorded. The gingival color and esthetic appearance were measured before the operation and at 1 week and 6 months later.<br><strong>Results:</strong> There was no significant difference in the bleeding scores, pain level, and color alteration values between the groups (P&gt;0.05). The operation chair time was significantly shorter when the diode laser was applied at pulsed mode (P&lt;0.05). The segments treated with the diode laser (pulsed or continuous mode) showed a higher esthetic appearance at the 6-month follow-up compared to those ablated with the CO2<br>laser (P&lt;0.05).<br><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Higher esthetic appearance is expected when using the diode laser for gingival depigmentation compared to the CO2 laser. The application of the diode laser at pulsed mode could be recommended for gingival depigmentation, as it produced pleasing esthetic outcomes at reduced chair time.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.8</a></p> Amir Moeintaghavi Farzaneh Ahrari Amir Fallahrastegar Asma Salehnia Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-22 2022-02-22 13 e8 e8 Effects of Radiotherapy in Combination With Irinotecan and 17-AAG on Bcl-2 and Caspase 3 Gene Expression in Colorectal Cancer Cells <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In this study, the cytotoxic and anti-cancer effects of Irinotecan as a conventional chemotherapeutic agent compared to 17-(allyl amino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) as possible radiosensitizers in the HCT-116 cell line were investigated.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> HCT-116 cells were treated with various concentrations of irinotecan and 17-AAG and also irradiated with a 2-Gy of X-ray radiation. Then, the cell viability was examined by a watersoluble tetrazolium-1 assay after 24 hours. For single therapies and double and triple combination cases, IC50, 0.5×IC50 and 0.25×IC50 concentrations of each drug were selected respectively for a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and other tests. In treated and untreated cells, the caspase 3 and Bcl-2 gene expression ratios were evaluated by the real-time PCR method. Likewise, caspase 3 activity was detected with a colorimetric assay.<br><strong>Results:</strong> In all combined treatments, including 17-AAG- radiation, irinotecan - radiation, irinotecan -17-AAG, and irinotecan-17-AAG-radiation, decreased cell viability, and increased TUNEL positive cells were presented versus the control group (P&lt;0.05). There were increased TUNEL positive cells in the triple combination, in concentrations of 0.25×IC50 of each drug, in comparison with single and double agent treatments. Moreover, in the triple combination, the caspase 3 mRNA level and caspase 3 activity increased versus related single treatments. Likewise, in the irinotecan17-AAG-radiation combined treatment and the 17-AAG-radiation double treatment, the Bcl-2 gene expression level decreased in comparison with single therapies.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can be indicated that the combination of chemo-radiotherapy versus single treatments has significant anti-cancer effects.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.09.</a></p> Mahnaz Ebrahimpour Mahshid Mohammadian Bagher Pourheydar Zhino Moradi Zhaleh Behrouzkia Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 13 e9 e9 Different Protocols of Combined Application of Photobiomodulation In Vitro and In Vivo Plus AdiposeDerived Stem Cells Improve the Healing of Bones in Critical Size Defects in Rat Models <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Long bone segmental deficiencies are challenging complications to treat. Hereby, the effects of the scaffold derived from the human demineralized bone matrix (hDBMS) plus human adipose stem cells (hADSs) plus photobiomodulation (PBM) (in vitro and or in vivo) on the catabolic step of femoral bone repair in rats with critical size femoral defects (CDFDs) were evaluated with stereology and high stress load (HSL) assessment methods.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> hADSs were exposed to PBM in vitro; then, the mixed influences of hDBMS+hADS+PBM on CSFDs were evaluated. CSFDs were made on both femurs; then hDBMSs were engrafted into both CSFDs of all rats. There were 6 groups (G)s: G1 was the control; in G2 (hADS), hADSs only were engrafted into hDBMS of CSFD; in G3 (PBM) only PBM therapy for CSFD was provided; in G4 (hADS+PBM in vivo), seeded hADSs on hDBMS of CSFDs were radiated with a laser in vivo; in G5 (hADSs+PBM under in vitro condition), hADSs in a culture system were radiated with a laser, then transferred on hDBMS of CSFDs; and in G6 (hADS+PBM in conditions of in vivo and in vitro), laser-exposed hADSs were transplanted on hDBMS of CSFDs, and then CSFDs were exposed to a<br>laser in vivo.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Groups 4, 5, and 6 meaningfully improved HSLs of CSFD in comparison with groups 3, 1, and 2 (all, P=0.001). HSL of G5 was significantly more than G4 and G6 (both, P=0.000). Gs 6 and 4 significantly increased new bone volumes of CSFD compared to Gs 2 (all, P=0.000) and 1 (P=0.001 &amp; P=0.003 respectively). HSL of G 1 was significantly lower than G5 (P=0.026).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> HSLs of CSFD in rats that received treatments of hDBMS plus hADS plus PBM were significantly higher than treatments with hADS and PBM alone and in control groups.</p> <p><strong> DOI:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.10.</a></p> Armin Khosravipour Atarodalsadat Mostafavinia Abdollah Amini Rouhallah Gazor Fatemeh Zare Somaye Fallahnezhad Fatemehalsadat Rezaei Mehrdad Asgari Fatemeh Mohammadian Zhaleh Mohsenifar Sufan Chien Mohammad Bayat Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 13 e10 e10 Efficacy of Photoinduced Photoacoustic Streaming and Diode Laser Irrigation Techniques on Smear Layer Removal, Sealer Penetration and Push-out Bond Strength <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The present study aimed to test the efficiency of photoinduced photoacoustic streaming using 2940 nm Er: YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser agitation on smear layer removal, sealer penetration, and push-out bond strength.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> 60 single canaled human permanent teeth were collected. Specimens were grouped into three experimental groups (20 teeth in each group), depending on the activation protocol used for final irrigation: Group I (needle agitation), group II (980nm diode laser agitation), and group III (photon induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) using 2940 nm Er: YAG laser. The quantity of irrigant was standardized in all groups to 4 ml. The irrigant was activated for 40 seconds in different groups under continuous flow. Two teeth from each group were used to check the smear layer removal, then the remaining teeth in each group were randomly divided into three equal experimental subgroups according to the methods of evaluation used: subgroup A: Sealing ability evaluated by dye penetration method; subgroup B: SEM for sealer penetration; and subgroup C: Push-out bond strength assessed by the universal test machine.<br><strong>Results:</strong> results showed that the PIPS group had opened dentinal tubules, while the least cleaning effect was found in the Sidevented needle group. As for Sealing ability and dye penetration, a statistically significant difference was found between all of the three groups, with the Er:YAG laser (PIPS) having the best sealing ability and sealer penetration. Push-out bond strength results showed no statistically significant difference between diode and Er:YAG groups, with a significant difference between each of them and the Side-vented needle group.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Using the diode or Er: YAG laser for irrigant activation led to better irrigant penetration and smear layer removal which subsequently led to obvious sealer penetration, better sealing, and strength properties of endodontic treated teeth.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.12</a></p> latifa M abdelgawad Nancy Attia Ahmed ElShafei Somaia Abdlatif Eissa Dalia Yahia Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 13 e12 e12 Effect of Erbium, Chromium-doped: Yttrium, Scandium, Gallium and Garnet Laser Tooth Preparation on Gap Formation of Universal Adhesive Bonded to Enamel and Dentin: A Micro-CT and SEM Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The presence of gaps at the bonding interface of resin composite restorations is known to have an impact on restoration longevity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet (Er, Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation on gap formation at the tooth–resin interface and to compare the reliability of micro-computed tomography (µCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) scans for gap formation assessment.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Thirty standardized non-retentive class V cavities were prepared on sound human premolars using either an Er,Cr:YSGG laser or a round carbide bur (n=15 for each). A universal adhesive and A nano-filled resin composite were applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. After water storage for 24 hours at 37°C, the teeth were subjected to thermocycling. Gap formation assessments were performed by µCT (Skyscan 1173 µCT, Brucker, Belgium) and SEM (JEOL JSM6610LV, Japan), and SPSS version 24.0 (IBM Inc., Chicago, USA) was used to analyze the data at P value&lt;0.05. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the gap formation percentages. To compare the impact of both preparation and assessment methods, a non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test was used.<br><strong>Results:</strong> In enamel, similar gap formation values were detected for the two preparation methods (bur and laser). However, the laser-prepared group showed higher gap formation values in dentin. Additionally, higher gap formation values were reported for both preparation methods when µCT was used for assessment.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cavity preparation using a Waterlase laser led to higher gap formation percentages at the dentin–resin interface. In addition, SEM assessment is more reliable for assessing the tooth–resin interface.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.14.</a></p> Anfal AlQussier Wedad Awliya Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-03-27 2022-03-27 13 e14 e14 The Effect of bisphenol A and Photobiomodulation Therapy on Autophagy-Related Genes Induction in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> As adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can divide rapidly and be prepared noninvasively, they have extensively been used in regenerative medicine. On the other hand, a new method of therapy, known as photobiomodulation (PHT), has been used to treat many diseases, such as inflammatory conditions, wound healing and pain. Besides, exposure to chemical substances such as bisphenol A (BPA), at low levels, can lead to autophagy. This study investigated the effects of BPA and PHT on the expression of autophagy-related genes, including LC3, NRF2, and P62, in rat ADSCs as a model.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> ADSCs isolation and purification were confirmed by immunocytochemistry (ICC). The cells were then treated with different concentrations of BPA and also subjected to PHT. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the evaluation of LC3, NRF2 and P62 gene expressions. Oil red O staining was used for adipogenic vacuole formation.<br><strong>Result:</strong> ICC showed that the isolated cells were CD 49-positive but CD 31 and CD 34-negative. The viability test indicated that the number of live cells after 24 hours in the BPA groups at concentrations of 0, 1, 50, 100 and 200 μM was 100%, 93%, 81%, 72%, and 43% respectively. The difference in cell viability between groups 50, 100 and 200 μM was significant as compared with the control groups (P&lt;0.05). Moreover, in the group with 1 μM concentration of BPA, the expressions of LC3, NRF2 and P62 genes were upregulated. However, in the treatment group at the concentration of 200 μM of BPA, the LC3 gene was expressed, but NRF2 and P62 genes were downregulated.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> BPA and PHT induce autophagy and adiposeness in ADSCs in a dose-dependent manner.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.15.</a></p> Yasaman Ebrahimi-kia Ali Noori-Zadeh Farzad Rajaee Shahram Darabi Leila Darabi Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 13 e15 e15 Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Low-Fluence Q-Switched 1064-nm Laser in Infra-orbital Hyperpigmentation Based on Biometric Parameters <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dark circles and wrinkles under the eyes are common cosmetic problems, caused by various conditions, especially aging and overproduction of melanin in the epidermis or dermis of the skin. In addition to the application of topical lightening agents, different types of lasers, especially the Q-Switched ND:YAG laser, has been used for the treatment of cutaneous hyperpigmentation. Because of a high prevalence of idiopathic eye dark circles (EDCs) or periorbital melanosis and a poor response to available therapies, we decided to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Fractional QS 1064 nm ND:YAG Laser through a before-after trial.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> 18-65-year-old patients with skin Fitzpatrick phototype of I-V and without any usage of a topical or systemic therapeutic regimen (2-4 weeks before the trial) were enrolled in the study. Each patient was treated with 6 sessions of the Fractional QS 1064 nm ND:YAG Laser at 2-week intervals and assessed for response and possible side effects or recurrences through 4 outcome measures, including Visoface-based color and erythema, melanin index and lightness (Before the fourth and sixth sessions of the therapy; also 1 week and 3 months after finishing the trial).<br><strong>Results:</strong> The changes in Visoface-based color and erythema, the melanin pigment amount by the Mexameter (melanin index) and the degree of lightness by the Colorimeter of patients after 6 months of intervention were statistically significant (P&lt;0.001).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The fractional QS 1,064 nm ND: YAG Laser is an effective and safe therapy in EDCs since objective outcomes like the reduction of the melanin index and improving lightness and subjective ones like the reduction of darkness and erythema were confirmed.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong>10.34172/jlms.2022.16.</p> Shiva Alavi Azadeh Goodarzi Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh Parvin Mansouri Mohammad Amin Jafari Somayah Hejazi Zahra Azizian Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 13 e16 e16 Comparing the Surface Behavior of Conventional and CAD-CAM Feldspathic Porcelains in the Face of LaserAssisted Bleaching and Post-bleach Polishing <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The prevalence of using different esthetic methods increases the possibility of close contact between them with potential adverse interactions. This study aimed to compare the surface changes (microhardness and roughness) in two types of feldspathic porcelain after laser bleaching and post-bleach polishing.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> 12 standardized rectangular specimens were prepared for each porcelain group (conventionally layered and CAD-CAM milled). Vickers microhardness and roughness were evaluated before and after the bleaching procedure and after polishing. Data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t test (P&lt;0.05).<br><strong>Results:</strong> The surface roughness of both groups increased significantly after laser bleaching (P&lt;0.001 for conventional and P=0.004 for CAD-CAM porcelains). The polishing process reduced the roughness of both groups; the reduction was significant in conventional specimens (P=0.020). The surface hardness values did not change significantly in the groups after the bleaching and post-bleach polishing stages (P=0.142). Generally, the average surface roughness of CAD-CAM specimens was significantly lower (P&lt;0.001), and the surface microhardness of the CAD-CAM group was significantly higher than conventional porcelains (P=0.011).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Laser bleaching significantly increased the surface roughness of feldspathic porcelains; however, it did not affect the surface microhardness significantly. Unlike CAD-CAM specimens, polishing significantly improved the surface smoothness of conventional porcelains.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="20%20" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.</a></p> Solaleh Amirpour-Harehdasht Somayeh Zeyghami Foujan Chitsaz Safoura Ghodsi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 13 e20 e20 Effect of Simvastatin and Low-Level Laser Therapy on Sutural Bone Formation After Expansion in Rats: Biomechanical, Computed Tomography and Immunohistochemical Assessment <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The application of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and some medications have been shown to accelerate bone formation in the rapid palatal expansion (RPE). A combination of these two therapeutic modalities may reduce the time required for the retention period. This study sought to assess the effects of simvastatin and LLLT, alone and combined, on sutural bone formation in rats.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Sixty male Wistar rats averagely weighing 150 g were divided into five groups (n=12) of control (group 1), 5 mg simvastatin (group 2), 10 mg simvastatin (group 3), LLLT (group 4), and LLLT plus 10 mg simvastatin (group 5). The expansion appliance was placed in the parietal bone in all groups. One week after placing the appliance, the spring was fixed with Duralay acrylic resin to serve as a retainer during the rest of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed after 30 (for biomechanical and computed tomography [CT] assessments) or 60 days (for biomechanical, CT, and immunohistochemical [IHC] assessments).<br><strong>Results:</strong> Groups 3 and 4 showed a significant improvement in osteogenesis (confirmed by CT findings, histological analysis, and biomechanical test) compared to the control group. Group 5 was significantly superior to all other groups in terms of all parameters (P&lt;0.001). Group 2 and the control group were not significantly different (P&gt;0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although LLLT, simvastatin treatment, and the combination of both significantly improved sutural bone formation in rats compared to the control group, the combined treatment showed significantly superior clinical results compared to other interventions.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.21</a></p> Arash Farzan Ali Moshiri Sina Andalib Mostafa Shamsi Nima Motamed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 13 e21 e21 Evaluating the Efficacy of the Er,Cr:YSGG Fractional Laser Before Treatment With Triamcinolone NN Ointment in Oral Lichen Planus Lesions <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> It has been demonstrated that laser technology can enhance topical drug absorption. This study aimed to determine the effects of Er, Cr: YSGG laser radiation before the application of topical corticosteroids in the healing of oral lichen planus.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> In this double-blind split-mouth clinical trial, 32 lesions were chosen from eight patients affected by oral lichen planus (OLP). The oral lesions were randomly categorized into two groups. The first group had topical treatment with triamcinolone NN ointment and the second group had laser radiation (Er,Cr:YSGG) for eight weeks before starting the ointment. For each lesion, the irritating level based on the VAS score, the lesion level based on the Thongprasom scale score, and the healing time were measured, and the collected data were analyzed by the Friedman test and the Wilcoxon’s statistical test.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean healing time based on the verbal analog scale (VAS) score was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (P&gt;0.05). The mean healing time based on Thongprasom scale scores did not show any significant difference between the two treatment groups (P&gt;0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The application of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser before treatment with triamcinolone NN ointment did not show any advantage for the average healing time compared to a medicine regimen with only triamcinolone NN ointment.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong>10.34172/jlms.2022.23.</p> Hamid Reza khalighi Fahimeh Anbari Seyed Masoud Mojahedi Gelareh Forouzani Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-05-21 2022-05-21 13 e23 e23 Myocardial Ischemia Detection by a Sensitive PumpProbe Atomic Magnetometer <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Magnetocardiography (MCG) based on optical atomic magnetometers has shown promise for detecting heart diseases accurately. Different methods were introduced to improve the sensitivity of detecting magnetic fields during cardiac activity.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> In this paper, an optical pump-probe magnetometer operated on the ground-state Hanle effect based on the zero-field level crossing technique was developed and the laser output signal was optimized in an unshielded environment. Then, the optical magnetometer was utilized to record the simulated MCG trace of different stages of myocardial ischemia.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The probe output light intensity followed the variation of cardiac magnetic field (MCG trace) generated by the Helmholtz coil accurately.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results, the feasibility of our highly sensitive optical magnetometer in tracing showed no change in the P-QRS-T waveform associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), where P indicates atrial depolarization, QRS is responsible for ventricular depolarization, and T represents ventricular repolarization.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.24.</a></p> Amin Zamani Maliheh Ranjbaran Mohammad Mehdi Tehranchi Seyedeh Mehri Hamidi Seyed Mohammad Hosein Khalkhali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 13 e24 e24 Numerical Modeling of The Dysplastic Vessel Heating in PWS by Yellow 578 nm Copper Vapor Laser Radiation for Different Skin Phototypes <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aimed to develop the algorithm for choosing both effective and safe mode of dual-wavelengths copper vapor laser (CVL) photodestruction of dilated dermal vessels in PWS for different skin phototypes. This study is expected to assess the safe parameters for CVL treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We used the multilayered skin model with different melanin content for simulation. The calculation of the vascular component’s selective heating with CVL radiation at the green and yellow wavelengths for different skin phototypes was performed with Matlab mathematical programming system and its application Femlab for solving partial differential equations using the Finite element method.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>We determined the location depth and size of blood vessels that could be selectively heated to the coagulation temperature for different skin phototypes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>CVL can selectively heat 15-300 mcm vessel diameters that correspond to the PWS vessel diameter range. CVL fluence values need to be reduced almost twice for the IV skin phototype than the II skin phototype. The maximum depth of the vessels’ location also decreased for dark skin phototypes.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong>10.34172/jlms.2022.11</p> IGOR Vladimirovich PONOMAREV Sergey B. Topchiy Alexandra E. Pushkareva Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-07-12 2022-07-12 13 e11 e11 A Correlation Analysis among Pain Intensity, Functional Disability and Range of Motion using Low Level Laser Therapy in patients with Discogenic Lumbar Radiculopathy <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> Laser is a pain-free and non-invasive treatment modality. It is used in many acute and chronic painful conditions. In recent times, the use of low intensity laser for physical therapy has been shown to significantly reduce pain with a variety of causes.<strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong>&nbsp;To determine the correlation among pain intensity, functional disability and range of motion using Low Level Laser therapy in patients with Discogenic Lumbar Radiculopathy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross sectional study was conducted as a part of a randomized controlled trial of Low Level Laser therapy in treating patients with Discogenic Lumbar Radiculopathy at Physical therapy departments of three different hospitals from August 2021 to September 2021. The study was conducted according to STROBE guidelines. Fifty Five (55) patients from experimental group of trial were invited to participate in this study. The outcomes of treatment were recorded on a semi-structured questionnaire on the first day and last day of treatment from each patient’s pain intensity, functional disability and Lumbar range of motion by using Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Dual Inclinometer respectively. The data was analyzed through SPSS version 21.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;The results of Correlation Coefficient/ Pearson’s Correlation of VAS, ODI and Dual Inclinometer were varied. The strength of correlation between variables was weak to moderate (r = 0.033 to 0.425) with statistically Insignificant correlation coefficient (P &gt; 0.05, CI 95%) except for Lumbar Flexion (P &lt; 0.05, CI 95%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>&nbsp;Weak to moderate correlations were found among pain intensity, functional disability and Lumbar range of motion using Low Level Laser Therapy at a wavelength of 830-nm and a dose of 3 J/point for acute LBP with Discogenic Lumbar Radiculopathy. In addition, no major side effects were observed during and after the use of LLL.</p> Ishaq Ahmed Mohammad Ali Mohseni Bandpei Syed Amir Gilani Ashfaq Ahmad Faryal Zaidi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-08-13 2022-08-13 13 e26 e26 Microtensile Repair Bond Strength of a Composite After Accelerated Artificial Aging: Effect of the Air Abrasion, Bur, Er:YAG Laser, Two-Step Self-etch Bonding, and Universal Bonding Repair System <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Repair of old composite restorations is a conservative approach. This study sought to compare the effects of two adhesive systems on the bond strength of repaired composites prepared by three different surface treatments: erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation, air-abrasion, and bur preparation.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Eight microhybrid (Polofil Supra, VOCO, Germany) composite resin blocks were fabricated. The blocks were aged and assigned to four groups as stated by the surface treatment: (I) air-abrasion (50 μ aluminum oxide particles), (II) diamond bur (fine grit), (III) Er:YAG laser (3 W output power, 300 mJ energy) and (IV) control. After surface treatment, the blocks were acid-etched and salinized. Each group was divided two subgroups, and the Clearfil SE Bond or All-Bond Universal was applied on their surface. Composite resin was bonded to the aged composites. The blocks were cut into eight samples, and the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was measured.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The maximum MTBS was noted in the air-abrasion (25.1 + 6 MPa) group, followed by the Er:YAG laser (21.2 + 4.7 MPa). The mean MTBS in laser and air-abrasion groups was significantly higher than that in other groups (P &lt; 0.05). The mean MTBS was not significantly different between the laser and air-abrasion groups (P &gt; 0.05). Composite resin conditioning by All-Bond Universal in laser and air-abrasion groups yielded significantly higher MTBS than the Clearfil SE Bond (P &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> All surface treatments created acceptable bond strength. The surface treatment of the aged composite by the Er:YAG laser or air-abrasion along with the application of silane and All-Bond Universal provide high bond strength.</p> Marie Rashidi Simin Berangi Nasim Chiniforush Elham Ahmadi Ladan Ranjbar Omrani Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-08-13 2022-08-13 13 e18 e18 Cxcl1 Is a Critical Target of Low-Level Er: YAG Laser Radiation in Primary Osteoblast-like Cells <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Low-level laser radiation have a significant effect on cell proliferation. Various investigations about effect of Er: YAG laser on the treated cell lines are published. Determining of core targeted proteins is an attractive subject. Aim of this research is identifying the critical targeted protein by low-level Er: YAG laser in Primary Osteoblast-like Cells.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Data was extracted from literature about proteomic assessment of 3.3 J/cm<sup>2</sup> of low-level Er: YAG laser radiation on osteoblast-like cells of rat calvaria. The significant differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) plus 100 first neighbors were analyzed via network analysis and gene ontology enrichment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Numbers of 9 DEPs among the 12 queried proteins were included in the main connected component. Analysis revealed that Cxcl1 is a key targeted protein in response to laser radiation. Presence of Cxcl1 in the significant cellular pathways indicates that cell growth and proliferation are affected. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It can be concluded that Immune system is affected by laser to activate cellular defend against stress.</p> Mojtaba Ansari Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani Maryam Hamzeloo-Moghadam Reza Vafaee Mohhamadreza Razzaghi Mahfam Nikzamir Mohammad Rostami Nejad Mona Zamanizn Azodi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 13 e25 e25 A trend of Medical Negligence in Laser Therapy in the Capital City: A Nine-Year Survey <p><strong>Background:</strong> the purpose of the present study is to investigate the common causes of injuries, claims, and decisions related to laser therapy medical malpractice during a nine-year survey.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong> This study is a retrospective descriptive study.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The legal documents in the coroner’s Office of Forensic Medicine were investigated in a national database from 2012 to 2020 in Tehran, Iran. The frequency and nature of the cases, including the year of litigation, the location and certificate of the provider, the injury sustained, the cause of legal action and judgment were collected.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Three hundred and eighty-three cases related to injury from laser therapy were registered in the coroner’s Office of Forensic Medicine during the study period. The incidence of litigation related to laser surgery showed an increasing trend, with a peak occurrence in 2020.</p> <p>Laser hair removal was the most common (51.2%) litigated procedure. General practice operators (48%) recorded the highest rate of laser-related medical complaints. lack of skill was the most common reason for failure. Among 383 cases with public decisions, 62.4% of them were fault liability in paid judgment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Medical claims related to laser application are increasing. However, as it is clear, the growth of laser technology and the increasing demand for lasers in medical science require more surveillance to avoid probable injuries and improve patient safety, especially surveillance of the physicians who work outside the scope of their specialty.&nbsp;</p> Somayeh Jahani sherafat Zahra Razzaghi Seyed Amirhossein Mahdavi Mehdi Forouzesh Mohammad Ali Emam Hadi Mohammad Rostami-Nejad Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani Mohammadreza Razzaghi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 13 e29 e29 Therapeutic Effect of a Low-Level Laser on Acute Pain and Post-operative Mouth Opening After Closed Reduction of Mandibular-Condylar Fracture <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of low-level laser therapy on acute pain and the range of mouth opening after condylar closed-reduction surgery. The use of low-level lasers, especially to reduce inflammation and pain, has received more attention in recent years. The results of many studies performed in this field are contradictory, and the effectiveness of low-level lasers in the treatment of patients is still uncertain.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study was performed as a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial on 40 patients with condylar closed reduction surgery. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of 20 patients, including the placebo and intervention groups, in which the recent group received active low-level laser (100 mw, 2J/cm<sup>2</sup>, 20S/point, 14 extraoral points,7 days). The range of jaw movements after opening the intermaxillary-fixation was measured. Patients’ pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21, the Chi-square test, and repeated measures ANOVA.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was no significant difference between the study groups in terms of the range of jaw motion. Our results showed that at the end of the study, the mean pain score by VAS was 56.85 (SD = 1.387) in the intervention group and 60.95 (SD = 4.861) in the placebo group (P = 0.007).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study indicated the effectiveness of low-level lasers in reducing acute pain in patients undergoing closed condylar surgery.</p> <p>Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT20200520047519N1)</p> Arash Bahari Bandari Saeed Hajmohammadi Sahar Mafi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-09-06 2022-09-06 13 e30 e30 Shear Bond Strength of Two Repair Systems to Zirconia Ceramic by Different Surface Treatments <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Intraoral repair has been recommended as an option of treatment to repair the chipping or fracture of the veneered zirconia; the success of the procedure mainly determined by the adhesion between the composite resin and zirconia; The present study aimed to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of zirconia ceramic treated by a laser and air abrasion and repaired using different intraoral repair systems.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Ninety tube- shaped samples (diameter of 10 mm, and 4 mm height) were divided into three main groups: (1) Group I Zirconia 100%, (2) Group II veneer ceramic 100%, and (3) Group III zirconia 50% veneered with veneering ceramic 50%. Each main group was subdivided into three subgroups (n=10) according to the type of repair system and different surface treatments (no surface treatment, Er,Cr:YSGG laser surface treatment, and air abrasion surface treatment). The SBS was employed using a universal testing machine. The mode of failure was observed using a stereomicroscope.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Significant differences in the mean SBS values between the different surface treatments (<em>P</em>˂ 0.05) were observed. Tukey’s post hoc test showed that air abrasion surface treatment of veneer ceramic repaired with Ceramic repair N system showed the highest mean value (13.74 MPa) among the different groups, while no surface treatment of zirconia repaired with Cimara repair system showed the lowest mean value (2.84 MPa). The control group (no surface treatment) had the lowest mean value among&nbsp;all&nbsp;the&nbsp;treated groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The SBS is surface treatment dependent, and a higher SBS is obtained by air abrasion than laser surface treatments. The Ceramic repair N system had a significantly higher SBS in all surface- treated substrates than in the Cimara repair system.</p> Mohammed A Abdulla Radhwan H Hasan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-09-06 2022-09-06 13 e31 e31 Effect of Photobiomodulation Therapy Associated With Biphasic Phosphate Calcium on Bone Repair: A Histomorphometric Study in Rats <p><strong>Background</strong>: This study aimed to investigate the effects of photobiomodulation therapy associate with biphasic calcium phosphate on calvaria critical defects in rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Forty-eight (90days old) adult male rats (<em>Rattus norvegicus</em>, Albinus variation, Wistar) received critical defects with 5 mm in diameter were made on their skull and were randomly assigned into the groups: C-blood clot, B-biphasic calcium phosphate, L-photobiomodulation therapy and B+L-biphasic calcium phosphate+photobiomodulation therapy. A low-level GaAlAs was applied in a single dose tran-surgically, in a wavelength 660 nm, total dense energy density of 45 J/cm<sup>2</sup>. At 30 and 60 days, animals from each group were euthanized. Histological and histomorphometric analyzes were performed.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In 30 days, almost all specimens (C, L, B and B+L) showed bone neoformation areas in regions near the borders of the surgical defect. In 60 days, in many specimens (C, L, B, B+L), it was possible to see a narrow neoformed bone structure along almost the whole extension of the surgical defect, though being thinner than the original calvary bone.&nbsp; Data were recorded as mean ± standard deviation, after normality was tested, suitable statistical test was applied (α= 5%). At 60 days, there was a statistically significant difference when comparing the proportion of neoformation area between group L (0.52%±0.13) and B+L (0.20%±0.08). Group L showed a difference compared with all the groups when comparing the remaining distance between de edges of neoformed bone (C×L, p=0.0431; B×L, p=0.0386; L×B+L, p=0.0352), demonstrating a great defect closure.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our findings suggest that photobiomodulation therapy applied at 45 J/cm² resulted in the highest percentage of bone neoformation area after 60 days, although biphasic calcium phosphate exerts some osteogenic activity during bone repair, photobiomodulation therapy is not able to modulate this process.</p> Andrea Carvalho De Marco Letícia Cavassini Torquato Tatiana Camacho Ribeiro Camilla Moretto Nunes Daniella Vicensotto Bernardo Clarissa Carvalho Martins Maciel Kauê Alberto Pereira Maria Aparecida Neves Jardini Mauro Pedrine Santamaria Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-09-06 2022-09-06 13 e33 e33 Parameters Used With Diode Lasers (808-980 nm) in Dentin Hypersensitivity Management: A Systematic Review <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The present study aimed to describe parameters used with 808- to 980-nm wavelength diode lasers for managing dentin hypersensitivity and analyze their results.<br>Methods: The inclusion criteria were based on randomized controlled clinical trials using diode lasers at an 808-980 nm wavelength range in patients with dentine hypersensitivity with a minimum of 1-month follow-up. An electronic search for articles on Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane databases was performed. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane collaboration tool.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Our electronic search resulted in 130 papers, of which 11 articles met the inclusion criteria. A majority of the studies assessed dentine hypersensitivity using the Visual Analogue Scale, which ranged between 2.3 and 8.8 before treatment and significantly reduced to a mean value of 0.45-3.7 after diode laser application. The power settings ranged between 1.5 mW and 3 W with an emission mode of continuous wave, except for 2 authors who used chopped mode. The energy density varied from 2.5 to 128 J/cm2, and the exposure time was between 10 and 120 seconds. The authors applied a minimum of 1 to 4 treatment sessions with a 2-day to 1-week interval between them. Most of the studies mentioned the tooth surface as the treatment site but without describing the specific irradiation points.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite the heterogeneity of the analyzed variables, a statistically significant improvement in all laser groups as described. However, they cannot be compared homogenously.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.03.</a></p> Haitham Abdelkarim-Elafifi Isabel Parada Avendaño Josep Arnabat Domínguez Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 13 e3 e3 Does photobiomodulation therapy improve the postoperative outcomes of tonsillectomy? A systematic review and meta-analysis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Postoperative management of patients undergoing tonsillectomy is challenging. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has emerged as a new tool providing therapeutic benefits. However, the contribution of PBMT to the postoperative outcomes of tonsillectomy is still undefined. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the published literature addressing the effects of PBMT on post-tonsillectomy.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Searches in Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and grey literature were carried out for the identification of randomized controlled trials reported up to August/2021. The risk of bias with the Cochrane Collaboration tool and meta-analysis was performed. Outcomes were assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 1183 articles were retrieved, of which only two were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The wavelengths were 685 nm and 980 nm with energy density set at 4 J/cm². The mandibular angle and the surgical wound were the sites of laser irradiation. Individuals who had not undergone PBMT after tonsillectomy were more likely to report pain and odynophagia in the first 24 hours after surgery than individuals who had undergone PBMT after tonsillectomy (P&lt;0.001). Children who received PBMT after tonsillectomy were equally affected by pain and odynophagia in the first seven days after surgery compared to children who had not undergone PBMT after tonsillectomy (P&gt;0.05). However, both studies found a significant association of PBMT with reduced analgesic consumption.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although PBMT seems promising for the management of individuals undergoing tonsillectomy, a limited number of studies are available in the literature.</p> <p><strong> Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.07. </a></p> José Alcides Almeida de Arruda Gerhilde Callou Sampaio Ana Carolina Velasco Pondé de Sena Lauren Frenzel Schuch Jaziel Pereira Ribeiro Manoela Domingues Martins Tarcília Aparecida Silva Ricardo Alves Mesquita Lucas Guimarães Abreu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 13 e7 e7 Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Bone Formation in Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Systematic Review <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Crossbite is a common malocclusion with a 7-23% prevalence rate. Treatment is based on the expansion of the mid-palatal suture (MPS) with Rapid Palatal Expansion(RPE) followed by a retention period to reach new bone maturation, enough to maintain the results stable. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in increasing bone formation in MPS.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This article was written by the PRISMA checklist. Electronically, 3 databases, namely PubMed, Scopus, and Embase, were searched with the keywords selected based on PICO. Time (2010-2021) and language restrictions were performed.<br><strong>Results:</strong> 528 articles, out of which 374 studies were screened, were found, and 9 full-text articles were subsequently included considering these inclusion criteria: randomized clinical trial (RCT) that examines the efficacy of LLLT in rapid palatal expansion (RPE), age under 15 years, non-surgical RPE with a tooth-supported appliance, and low-intensity laser application. Finally, 4 articles were appraised by Cochrane version 5.2.0 with 7 domains. 3 of 4 articles showed LLLT has a significant impact on bone formation. One of them showed no significant difference in pain perception and bone density between the laser and non-laser groups.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> While many studies have assessed the effect of LLLT on bone formation in animal models, high-quality clinical trials are missing in this regard. The available clinical trials suggest a positive effect of LLLT on sutural bone formation after RPE.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.13.</a></p> Arash Farzan Katayoon Khaleghi Zeynab Pirayesh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 13 e13 e13 The effect of photobiomodulation therapy on the stability of orthodontic mini-implants in human and animal studies: A systematic review and meta-analysis <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The present study aimed is to systematically explore available literature on the possible impact of PBM therapy on stability and success of orthodontic mini-implants.</p> <p><strong>Methods:.</strong>A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane and Embase databases for human and animal studies published till July 2021.Two independent researchers reviewed the studies based on specific eligibility criteria.</p> <p>Results: After a comprehensive search removing unrelated items, 15 studies were included in the systematic review. In the meta-analysis, 10 studies were included. 4 human RCT studies that evaluate the stability with Preriotest, 3 human RCT studies and 2 animal studies that evaluate the stability with implant stability quotient (ISQ) and 2 human RCT studies that examined the displacement of mini-implants. The analysis results of Periotest stability results showed a positive effect of PBM on mini-implant stability 30 and 60 days after implantation (P&lt;0.05). In human studies using the ISQ method, an improvement was seen in PBMT group, however, this was not statistically significant. (CI=-1.92-2.70, SMD=0.39). In the studies that examined the displacement of mini-implants, no statistically significant difference was observed (CI= -1.92-2.70, SMD= 0.03). In the animal studies, which had used the ISQ method, the use of laser was effective in increasing the stability of micro-implants (SMD= 1.43, CI=1.00 - 1.85). Although positive effects were observed with PBM, however, further studies are still needed for establishing evidence-based dosing and irradiation protocols.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Photobiomodulation therapy can be suggested as an adjunctive clinical method to improve stability of mini-implant treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> mini-implant, stability, photobiomodulation</p> Parnian Razaghi Janet Moradi Haghgoo Salman Khazaei Nasrin Farhadian Reza Fekrazad Leila Gholami Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-08-21 2022-08-21 13 e27 e27 Photobiomodulation Therapy and Cell Therapy Improved Parkinson’s Diseases by Neuro-regeneration and Tremor Inhibition <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Parkinson's disease is a progressive and severe neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The most prominent features of this disease are cell reduction in Substantia nigra and accumulation of α-Synuclein, especially in the brainstem, spinal cord, and cortical areas. In addition to drug-based treatment, other therapies such as surgery, cell therapy, laser therapy can be mentioned. In this study, articles on cell therapy and laser therapy for Parkinson's disease have been collected to evaluate the improvement of motor function, cell differentiation, and dopaminergic cell proliferation. <strong>Method:</strong> Articles were collected from four electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar Web of Science from 2010 to 2022 and electronically to study the effects of stem cell therapy and laser therapy on Parkinson's disease through the keywords "photobiomodulation", "low-level light therapy", "Low-level laser therapy", "near-infrared light", "Parkinson's disease", "Parkinsonism" and "stem cell therapy" were searched. About 80 related articles were included in the study. <strong>Result:</strong> The results of studies show that cell therapy and laser therapy are each useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and despite their limitations can be useful in improving Parkinson's disease. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Concomitant use of cell therapy and Photobiomodulation therapy can improve the symptoms of Parkinson's.</p> Behnaz Ahrabi Fatemeh Sadat Tababtabee Mirkabad Somayeh Niknazar Ali Asghar Payvandi Mahnaz Ahrabi Shaysteh Dordshaikh Torkamani Hojjat Allah Abbaszadeh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 13 e28 e28 Therapeutic Effects of Photobiomodulation Therapy on Multiple Sclerosis by Regulating the Inflammatory Process and Controlling Immune Cell Activity: A Novel Promising Treatment Target <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the autoimmune and chronic diseases of the central ‎nervous system, this disease occurs more frequently in young people and women ‎and leads to neurological symptoms. Oxidative stress, inflammatory process, and ‎oligodendrocyte dysfunction has a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of this ‎disease. Nowadays, it has been reported that Photobiomodulation (PBM) as a non-invasive threat has neuroprotective potential but the exact mechanisms are not understood. &nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Methods: </strong>In this manuscript, we have reviewed the Photobiomodulation effects on MS. in this regard, we used "Photobiomodulation", " Laser therapy", and "Low-level laser therapy" keywords on MS to find related studies on this subject in PubMed, Google scholar, Elsevier, Medline, and Scopus databases.&nbsp; <strong>Results: </strong>Photobiomodulation has positive effects on MS by regulating the inflammatory ‎process, controlling immune cell activity, and mitochondrial functions, as well as inhibiting free ‎radicals’ production. ‎</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Overall, researchers have suggested that laser therapy could be considered a promising new treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.</p> Saeed Vafaei-Nezhad Somayeh Niknazar Ali Asghar Payvandi Atefeh Shirazi Tehrani Navid Ahmady Roozbahany Behnaz Ahrabi Hojjat-allah Abbaszadeh Shahram Darabi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 13 e32 e32 Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Autoimmune Thyroiditis <p>Autoimmune thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder which characterized by thyroid gland dysfunction. Low Level Laser Therapy(LLLT) is a safe and non-invasive intervention that gained much attention in many clinical applications including pain relief, regenerative medicine, and autoimmune. In the present review, we discuss the effects of LLLT on the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis.</p> Nikoo Hossein-Khannazer Mandana Kazem Arki Aliasghar Keramatinia Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-09-05 2022-09-05 13 e34 e34 Comparison of Bichectomy Techniques Through a Clinical Case and 6-Month Follow-up <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Bichectomy consists of the partial removal of the Bichat ball (BB) of its buccal extension and smoothing the facial contour. The objective of this study is to present, by means of a clinical case, bichectomy surgery with the use of a high-power diode laser and cold scalpel on different sides of the same patient, analyzing the trans-surgical phase and the pain and edema like consequence operative of each technique and 6-month follow-up.<br><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> A 20-year-old female patient reported the occurrence of involuntary trauma to the cheek mucosa and rounded facial appearance. After anamnesis and clinical examination, bichectomy was proposed. For comparison, on the right side, an incision was made using a laser, while on the left side, with a cold scalpel. To assess and measure the progression of treatment, photographs and facial measurements were repeated before the procedure, 7, 14, and 28 days after the procedure, and 2, 3, and 6 months after the procedure.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The high-power diode laser showed excellent applicability for bichectomy due to its hemostatic properties in the trans-surgical phase. In addition, it promoted greater patient comfort, with less edema and pain on the side of the face where it was used.</p> <p><strong> DOI:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.02</a></p> Yasmin Rabelo Batalha de Sena Paulo Maria Santos Rabêlo-Júnior Leticia Machado Gonçalves Andrea Dias Neves Lago Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 13 e2 e2 Diode Laser Excision of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck’s Disease): A Case Report <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), also known as Heck’s disease, is a human papilloma virus-induced proliferation of epithelial cells, which causes asymptomatic lesions in the oral mucosa. Heck’s disease is more prevalent among children or in a family. Despite the self-limitation of lesions, they may progress or cause esthetical and functional discomforts. Hence, early diagnosis is necessary.<br><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> A middle-aged man with peripheral multiple soft, elevated, sessile, smooth, lobulated surface and nodular lesions in his right buccal mucosa was referred. The dimensions of the lesions varied from 5 to 25 mm. Through clinical and histopathological examinations, Heck’s disease was diagnosed. The diode laser (wavelengths of 980 nm), 1-W power using continuous waves) was applied serially (in 2 sessions with a 1-week interval) for surgically removing the lesions. The patient was followed up for 6 months with no lesion recurrence, and gradual healing was observed.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The laser is an effective treatment with no scar remaining after the procedure and brings satisfaction to patients.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.06.</a></p> Javad Sarabadani Nasim Chiniforush Yasaman Yazdandoust Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 13 e6 e6 Photobiomodulation and Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Ulcers in a Patient With Thrombocytopenia Following Bone Marrow Transplantation <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Thrombocytopenia is usually seen after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and may favor the development of oral bleeding, infections, and ulcerations.<br><strong>Case Report:</strong> A patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia had been submitted to allogeneic HSCT. Within a few days, she developed severe thrombocytopenia and an extensive ulcerative area comprising both lips, which bled spontaneously, as well as smaller ulcers on the tongue mucosa. The lesions were managed using a combination of phototherapies (photobiomodulation and antimicrobial photodynamic therapies), totalizing 4 laser sessions. After 4 days, there was an important reduction in the severity of the lesions, with spontaneous disappearance of the crusts and reepithelization.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The proposed combination of phototherapies would be a suitable therapeutic modality for the management of oral lesions related to platelet disorders induced by oncologic treatments.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.17.</a></p> Luana Campos Daniel Campanhã Ricardo Yudi Tateno Luiz Felipe Palma Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 13 e17 e17 Photodynamic Therapy in Root Canal Disinfection: A Case Series and Mini-Review <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is now a widely used treatment modality in many fields of dentistry, including endodontics. The most common application of PDT in endodontics is to disinfect root canals. The purpose of this study was to present the experience of using PDT in root canal disinfection of three patients.<br><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> Three patients were referred to the Endodontics Department of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and were treated using 0.1 mg/mL Toluidine Blue (FotoSan® agent; CMS Dental, Denmark) irradiated with a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp (FotoSan®; CMS Dental, Denmark) with a mean wavelength of 630 nm and a mean power density of 3 W/cm2 over two 30-second periods.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> PDT using LED lighting can be used in conjunction with conventional root canal treatment (RCT) to achieve great results.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.19</a></p> Soheil Shahbazi Saharnaz Esmaeili Mojgan Feli Mohammad Asnaashari Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 13 e19 e19 Laser-Assisted Lip Repositioning Surgery: A Modification to The Conventional Technique <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The lip repositioning surgical technique arose with the objective of correcting and harmonizing the act of smiling. Since the conventional technique was published, some modifications of the technique have been proposed in order to counteract postoperative recurrence and to achieve the best esthetic appearance of the smile. The objective of this paper was to describe the laser-assisted lip repositioning technique (laser-assisted LRS) with a 940nm diode laser and 2780nm Er, Cr: YSGG, as a modification to the conventional lip repositioning technique, for the treatment of a gummy smile.<br><strong>Case Report:</strong> The proposed technique consists in achieving the descent of the upper lip by removing the intraoral mucosal band through the laser peeling of the oral mucosa, preserving the connective tissue intact for healing by secondary intention. The technique was implemented in two patients with a diagnosis of a gummy smile caused by a short and hyperactive upper lip; the healing process was satisfactory, and there was no bleeding or postoperative edema. Postoperative controls were performed at 3 and 10 months, and no recurrence was found.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> the 940nm Diode laser or 2780nm Er, Cr: YSGG laser-assisted lip repositioning the technique described here is less invasive than that performed with a conventional scalpel, offers aesthetic results, lower risk of infection, and recurrence of the gummy smile in the long term.</p> <p><strong>Doi:</strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.34172/jlms.2022.22</a></p> Pilar Rocío Blanco Florez Jessica Alvis Guzmán Jennifer Orozco Páez Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 13 e22 e22