Review of Predisposing Factors of Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy; an Update
Iranian Journal of Emergency Medicine,
Vol. 10 No. 1 (2023),
30 November 2022
Cervical ectopic pregnancies (CEPs) are rare, comprising less than 1% of ectopic pregnancies. On one hand, the abundant blood supply of the cervix and its incompatibility to keep the pregnancy in progress increases the potential for bleeding following CEP, mortality, complications, and infertility in affected women. CEPs are more difficult to diagnose and get identified at later gestational ages. CEP is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancies and most commonly are a consequence of assisted reproductive technology (ART); while definitive risk factors are not fully known. Possible risk factors include cervical and uterine anomalies, previous curettages or cesarean sections, smoking, tubal factor infertility, or in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Our analysis of literature in 200 patient restricted to retrospective case series , showed that a history of previous C-section, uterine curettage or D&C procedures, and a history of using assisted reproductive technology might be some of the potential risk factors. The increasing application of Hegar dilators was hypothesized as the cause of the rise in CEPs. Dilation and curettage (D&C) might also make the subject vulnerable to CEP development in the future. Previous D&C history could be a potential predisposing factor that is common among CEP patients. In this review, we critically reviewed these potential risk factors. In conclusion, the risk factors of CEP and their effect on fertility are also not studied properly. The rarity of these cases makes it difficult to predict as well if the risk of their recurrence is elevated.
- Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy
- Cervix, Risk Factor
- Ectopic Pregnancy
How to Cite
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